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Beauty Therapy Thesis Essays and Research Papers. Write Comparative. Reflective assignment Barnfield College Beauty Spa and Salon is resume well known for its qualitative and professional treatments as well as highly . competitive prices. Write 5 Paragraph. People like coming here because they are treated with more care and attention, and the treatments are performed more thoroughly than elsewhere. Ms S was one of these regular clients who enjoy every minute spent in the Barnfield Salon. She decided to book a set of aromatherapy blend massages and the treatment described in this paper.
Massage , Petrissage , Ready an' Willing 1657 Words | 5 Pages. ?Individual Therapy One to One Relationship – take place over a designated period of time in a stable meeting Phases (Nurse-client . Resume Creator. relationship) Preinteraction phase – obtaining information about a client from chart or others, nurse examines feelings/anxieties about the 5 paragraph essay client Orientation/Introductory phase – trust/rapport, establish contract for intervention (goal), gather data, assess strengths weaknesses, establish nursing dx, set goals, develop action plan, explore feelings of 100 creator nurse client. Clinical psychology , Family therapy , Goal 565 Words | 3 Pages. What is Beauty ? Everyone looks at write, beauty differently and everyone has his or her own definition of it. In today’s society . beauty is seen as a person’s psychical appearance, what clothes they wear, their hair and make-up, and even the shape of their body. The World English Dictionary’s first definition states beauty as “the combination of all qualities of statements about a person or thing that delights the write 5 paragraph comparative senses and thesis 99 pleases the write 5 paragraph comparative essay mind.”(“ Beauty ” N. pag.) I agree with this definition because I believe beauty goes deeper.
Beauty , Cosmetics , Debut albums 924 Words | 3 Pages. ? Beauty Beauty is in thesis 99 the eye of the essay beholder. Today’s beholders see America for their outer beauty . American . people will judge others on resume, their outer appearances before their inner beauty . The typical female beauty in America consist of bronze skin, long flowing hair, tall, small frame and pretty light eyes.. The typical male beauty in America consist of tan skin, tamed hair, tall and muscular built body and write 5 paragraph essay dreamy colored eyes. Thesis 99. America wants one to comparative, believe that if the general public is not conformed. 2003 singles , Beauty , Bishonen 1071 Words | 4 Pages. THERAPIES AND TREATMENTS Due to essay on people dependent on technology, the harmful effects created by the traumatic experience of being bullied some victims have a hard time . recovering from the said situation. They are greatly affected not only socially but mentally, emotionally and personally as well. 5 Paragraph. Some even have the psychotic tendency of retreating to cause and effect on homeless, their personal haven because of the fear that they will again be experiencing the traumatic experience. Mostly these victims are so affected that their self-esteem suffers great damage.
Human behavior , Irrationality , Motivation 1466 Words | 5 Pages. Beauty Beauty is in the eye of those who appreciate and recognize it. Considered to be an universal language which can be . Write 5 Paragraph Comparative Essay. defined in so many ways with a particular candor. What defines beauty ? who can set the standards of what is beautiful or not? Media. Society. Religion. Culture. No matter the many centuries that pass, beauty will forever be a threshold of affirmation and identification in terms of individuality and society both on a microscopic level as well as universal.
We do have. Angelina Jolie , Beauty , Beauty contest 1400 Words | 4 Pages. And Effect. Beauty and the Knife Is it true that someone is able to purchase beauty ? No, beauty comes without a price tag. 5 Paragraph Comparative Essay. . Then why do people undergo intense surgery to wear the smallest pant size, have the flattest stomach, or the largest breasts to be declared beautiful? It is thesis 99 because people are misled with the craze of cosmetic surgery, which is on a rapid rise. In the mind of a uniformed patient that is seeking beauty ; cosmetic surgery has turned into the solution for any type of flaw on one’s body. Breast , Breast cancer , Breast implant 1377 Words | 4 Pages. thesis is fun. Write 5 Paragraph Comparative. thesis won't let me sleep. I love thesis ! yey! I just wanna sleep. Please help me with my . thesis , because I wanna pass my english class. Why make college so complicated?
What do they even do with all the theses they make the students pass? . Thesis Statements About Ronald Reagan. Academia 601 Words | 3 Pages. 5 Paragraph Comparative Essay. phoenix mall Mumbai) 3. Thesis on Jail , case study on atticus finch courage, (banglore jail, belgaum jail) 4. Thesis on institute of archaeology , . case study on (archaeological museum hampi) 5. Design of EXHIBITION 6. Restructuring the sukhna lake 7. Thesis on write essay, film city, case study on (DADA SAHEB PHALKE CHITRANAGRI MUMBAI, RAMOJI FILM CITY HYDERABAD) 8. CENTRE FOR THE INDIAN CLASSICAL MUSIC, CASE STUDY ON (KALA ACADMY GOA, NRITYAGRAM BANGLORE, NATIONAL CENTRE FOR PERFORMING ARTS MUMBAI,) 9. THESIS ON INFOTAINMENT MALL. Bus station , Bus stop , Chandigarh 1434 Words | 4 Pages. Write a strong thesis statement! What is a thesis statement? ? ? It is usually a single sentence at the end of your first . paragraph that presents your argument to the reader. Finch Courage. The rest of the paper, the comparative essay body of the essay, gathers and organizes evidence that will persuade the reader of the mla papers research logic of your interpretation. 5 Paragraph Comparative. The thesis statement is the “road map” of your paper, directing you as you write it and guiding the reader through it.
Do ? ? ? ? Don’t ? ? ? ? Know your essay’s type. Make a statement. American Civil War , Essay , Question 467 Words | 2 Pages. PM Page 11 THESIS SENTENCE TEMPLATES A thesis sentence is a sentence in the introduction that tells the reader what the . topic or argument of the essay is. Experienced writers have little difficulty writing thesis sentences. This is because they have read and written thousands of them. You, the emerging writer, don’t have it so easy. So, you have to resume creator, accelerate the process. 5 Paragraph Comparative. You do this via thesis sentence templates. A thesis sentence template is the basic machinery of a thesis sentence, what.
Clause , Predicate , Sentence 997 Words | 7 Pages. ?The Thesis I. WHAT IS A THESIS ? What is a thesis ? The thesis is the controlling idea around which . you construct the rest of your paper. Essay On Homeless. In a history paper, the thesis generally explains why or how something happened. Every word of your paper should support your thesis . Information you do not directly relate to your thesis will appear irrelevant. This means, of course, that in a paper with a weak or no thesis , much of the paper will appear to write 5 paragraph comparative, be irrelevant and unguided. How do I present the thesis. Answer , Predicate , Primary source 872 Words | 2 Pages. Handbook Research Writer. Introduction to the Thesis Statement: American History A thesis expresses the write 5 paragraph comparative judgment of someone who has thoughtfully examined . a body of evidence on a topic.
It is an informed and debatable statement that is the foundation of any effective expository writing or research project. Thesis 99. A thesis statement makes a claim or expresses a point of view that others might disagree with. Write 5 Paragraph Comparative. Thesis statement = topic + debatable point of view (based on statements about ronald reagan, evidence) A five-point scale is often used in 5 paragraph comparative social research. Abolitionism , Ancient Greece , Ancient Rome 567 Words | 3 Pages. Resume Creator. Child Beauty Pageants: What Are We Teaching Our Girls?The princess syndrome, self-image and eating disorders Published on August 12, 2011 by . Comparative. Martina M. Cartwright, Ph.D., R.D. in thesis ronald reagan Food For Thought The recent issue of French Vogue has sparked outrage for write essay its photos of a ten-year old model lying in a sea animal print wearing a chest revealing gold dress, stilettos and heavy make up. Cries of how young is on people dependent too young to write, model, be sexy etc. have ignited controversy about early sexualization of children. And Effect People. Beauty , Beauty contest , Child beauty pageant 1147 Words | 4 Pages. ) products and/or services, etc. D. A general and brief description of the system under study. Statement of the Problem The problem of the . study.
This is identified by answering the question: What is being solved by this research or thesis project. The statement of the problem is a clear, definite, and logical statement of the major problem(s) and the sub-problem(s) if any. How to 5 paragraph comparative, write the problem. • State the problem of the study fully and essay precisely in enumerated form . Rapid application development , Requirements analysis , Research 1233 Words | 6 Pages. 2011 – 2012 A Research Presented to Living Stone International School In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in English IV [pic] . Balinsoy, Maraly L. Lee, Jeong Eun High School IV March 2012 APPROVAL SHEET This thesis entitled “Profile and write 5 paragraph Level of Internet Usage Vis-A-Vis the Academic Performance of Junior High School Students of LSIS A. 100 Resume. Y. Write Comparative Essay. 2011 – 2012” prepared and submitted by handbook mla papers writer the researchers in partial fulfillment of the requirements in English IV, has been. College , High school , Middle school 436 Words | 3 Pages. 25 July 2013 Manila Electric Company (MERALCO) Lopez Bldg., Meralco Center, Ortigas Avenue, Pasig City To Whom It May Concern: Good day! We are senior . students from the University of Santo Tomas and we are currently working on our Thesis paper as our major and comparative essay final requirement. Our paper aims to study the new program designed by the Energy Regulatory Commission which is the Prepaid Retail Electric Service. The focus of our study is the viability and effectiveness of this program in 100 creator the Philippine. GSIS-Meralco bribery case , Manila , Meralco 480 Words | 3 Pages. SERVICE OF COFFEE BEAN AND TEA LEAF IN TRINOMA MALL, QUEZON CITY An Undergraduate Thesis Presented to The College of write comparative Tourism and . Hospitality Management Asian College of Science and atticus Technology In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Bachelor of Science in Hospitality Management Von Ryan N. Write Essay. Visco March 2012 CERTIFICATE OF ACCEPTANCE This is to certify that this undergraduate thesis entitled “Analysis of customer service of Coffee Bean and essay on people on technology Tea Leaf” and submitted.
Bachelor's degree , Caffeine , Coffee 602 Words | 4 Pages. Similarities and Difference of Information Technology and Computer Science A Thesis Submitted to the faculty Of the write 5 paragraph comparative College of Arts . and Sciences For the completion of the course Writing in handbook research writer the Discipline English 2 Submitted to: Ms. Nessa Estabillo Instructor Submitted by: Del MUNDO, Mark Anthony ESTABILLO, Christian Neil BARLAAN, Dan Anjo EMPEnO, Pauline March 2013 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Many college students nowadays are more intrested. Algorithm , Computer , Computer science 772 Words | 3 Pages. APPROVAL SHEET This thesis entitled “Effectiveness of write essay Video Lessons in atticus courage essay Social Studies on write comparative, the Performance of Sophomore Students in Tomas . Claudio Memorial College”, prepared and submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for handbook mla papers the Degree Bachelor of comparative Secondary Education by cause essay on homeless people Ralph Luigi Yap, is essay hereby recommended for corresponding oral examination. March 12,2013 Mr. Marlon Pabilonia Adviser Approved in partial fulfillment of the on people on technology requirements for the Degree Bachelor. Chemistry , Education , Experiment 962 Words | 5 Pages. he main objective of this thesis is to see whether value premium is present in the Indian stock market since the liberalization of it in the . Write 5 Paragraph Comparative. early 1990s. Additionally, I look into the reasons for the value premium – whether it can be explained by higher levels of cause on homeless people fundamental risk and write comparative essay classical (also called modern) financial theory or can the reasons for market inefficiencies be based on irrationality of market participants and the groundwork of behavioral finance theorists. Finch. The concept of rationality.
Contrarian investing , Economics , Finance 1835 Words | 6 Pages. customers and achieve Organizational Effectiveness. In advance, the students are extending our deepest gratitude for considering their request. Write 5 Paragraph Comparative. Thank you . and God Bless. Respectfully, Alejandro G. Esperanza Ed. D Research and essay dependent Thesis Writing Professor Prof. Mario S. Nillo Thesis Adviser Site Based Management and Organizational Effectiveness of Selected Managers and 5 paragraph comparative essay employees of Food Related-Business in Taguig City Input: 1. What are demographic and employment profile of respondents? 1.1 Name 1. Greenwich Pizza , Jollibee 437 Words | 6 Pages. decisions. Patriarchal values are charming not only for men but also for women owing to its powerful position in the society. Shakib’s story depicts the fact . that such charm for being a man and handbook masculine discourse often destroys lives of women. This thesis consists of three chapters: Gender and Women Issues in Siba Shakib’s Works, Masculinity Discourse: Gender Identity Crisis in essay Siba Shakib’s Samira and Samir, and Conclusion.
The first chapter briefly introduces how the concepts of gender, masculinity. Feminism , Gender , Gender role 2524 Words | 7 Pages. Arashiyama, a nationally-designated historic site. The pathway you see in the above picture is 500m long, and runs through one of Japan’s most beautiful . Thesis 99. bamboo forests. No wonder the Agency for Cultural Affairs declared Arashiyama a “Place of Scenic Beauty ”. This forest is close to 5 paragraph, many famous temple and shrines, including the Adashino Nenbutsu-ji Temple.The sound the wind makes, as it blows through the 100 creator tall bamboo trees, has been voted by essay the Japanese authorities as one of 100 must-preserve sounds. Bamboo , Cherry , Cherry blossom 989 Words | 3 Pages. parts, related literature and studies. Related Literature Foreign (Mary Ann Ecalnea, Minalyn Esguerra, Cridtia Mae Feleciano, Jamee Aubrey . Fernando, Jezrell Fiesta, Ma. Madona Flores, Gracel Kay Gacisano, Liezel Garcia and writer Davie Gonzales ( Thesis Book: Library Management System of write 5 paragraph essay Isabela State university – Roxas Campus) p.8-9) An Integrated Library System (ILS) usually comprises a relational database, software to interact with that database, and two graphical user interfaces (one for. Thesis 99. Isabela , Jackson Creek Software , Librarian 912 Words | 4 Pages. based applications which are deployed and can be visited all over the world without the limitation of time and geographical boundaries. Web site usability, . Write 5 Paragraph Comparative. security and reliability consider some of the core aspects in thesis 99 designing of web sites.
In this thesis , we explore possible tensions and tradeoffs between usability and security issues in web site design. We discuss web site usability issues in terms of 5 paragraph comparative essay technical and social aspects. We discuss web site security in terms of about ronald usability and offer some. Write Comparative Essay. Graphic design , Hypertext Transfer Protocol , Internet 745 Words | 3 Pages. sought to present related literatures and studies that are relevant to the study. It includes foreign and essay on people dependent on technology local literature, and foreign and local studies . from journals, websites and comparative books, online newspaper and online articles, similar studies such as thesis , and thesis 99 dissertations that have been previously conducted by other researchers, some studies that were analyzed by the researchers. These following literatures and studies will surely be very helpful for the researchers for the analysis of the study. Concept , Education , Flowchart 467 Words | 4 Pages. hired to change the essay course of thesis ronald reagan Nokia and to write 5 paragraph comparative, stop the thesis 99 declining trend in Nokia’s global market share especially in the smart phone segment. The first major . Write Comparative Essay. decision was to start extensive cooperation with Microsoft in February 2011. The title of the thesis is “Marketing Strategies of Smart Phones: A Case Study of Nokia Mobiles” and the objective is to statements, analyze the write essay dimensions of Nokia’s smart phone marketing that the thesis 99 customers do not agree upon or simply do not know about and improve them from a brand. Advertising , Brand , Brand equity 1910 Words | 6 Pages.
Thesis statement : FOOTBALL - Thesis Statement – Dylan 3G I selected this topic because the football field is the best place . to let out your anger. Plus, when you tackle somebody, you don't get in any trouble. I will teach others the best way to write 5 paragraph comparative, play football. For example, when you run with the ball keep it in the opposite hand from the other team. In my opinion, football is a good running sport. I will prove to you that it can hurt when you get tackled problem statement Concussions. American football , Datu , Ernesto Presas 1070 Words | 3 Pages. ipl and resume laser level 4 beauty therapy. follicles are always at different stages of their own growth cycle.
When hair is removed, therefore, the hair will not grow back at 5 paragraph comparative, the same time. Thesis About. For this . reason, waxing or threading can appear to reduce the quantity of hair growth.’ (the Foundations Beauty Therapy 2 by Lorraine Nordmonn). Evaluating the effectiveness of the treatment can be accessed through photographs. It is good practice to take photographs before and write 5 paragraph comparative essay after each treatment. Treatment records keeping notes on progress and observations. Electromagnetic radiation , Human skin color , Infrared 1400 Words | 4 Pages. ? MEMORANDUM FOR: Mr. Roberto Guinto SUBJECT: Undergraduate Thesis Proposal DATE: July 2013 SUBMITTED BY: . Martillana, Jonathan P. Ico, Jerald G. PROPOSED TOPIC: Valenzuela City Polytechnic College Graduate Information Tracer System Basis for Job Placement and Monitor Employment Status of Graduates CLIENT: Ms. On People Dependent. Marilou Palomar Office of the comparative essay Registrar Employee (02) 293-0775 or (02) 292-0480 Kamagong St. Fortune Village 6, Parada, Valenzuela. Recruitment , Valenzuela City , Web application 800 Words | 4 Pages. A PROPOSED AUTOMATED EXAMINATION FOR IT STUDENT FOR CIP PLF CROG FILIPINO 1 SUBJECTS OF INFORMATICS INTERNATIONAL CAINTA A Thesis . Presented to The Faculty of thesis 99 Informatics International College Cainta, Rizal In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for Thesis A AQUINO, BENISON BSIT March 2013 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Automation has been increasingly used in the ranges of industries and 5 paragraph has proven a notable impact to handbook writer, optimise productivity.
Most of the developing countries. Automation , Comprehensive examination , Educational technology 1333 Words | 5 Pages. Approval Sheet This thesis entitled “Activities in LearningSocial studies”, prepared and write essay submitted by Marjodette T. Finch Courage Essay. Barrantes. In Partial . Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Secondary Education is 5 paragraph comparative hereby presented and recommended for pre-oral examination. Thesis 99. Ms. Enriqueta E. Write. Alcoreza Ed. D Thesis Adviser Panel of Examiners Mr. Lawrence Oliver V. Paunil MA.Ed Chairman Ms.
Enriqueta E. Alcoreza Ed.D Ms. Mary Rose Magsino. Bless you , Classmates , Doctor 466 Words | 3 Pages. ?AUTOMATED SUPREME STUDENT COUNCIL ELECTION SYSTEM FOR CONSOLACION COMMUNITY COLLEGE A Thesis Proposal Presented to the Faculty of . the School of Computer Studies, ConsolacionCommunity College In Partial Fulfilment of the on people on technology Requirements for the degree Bachelor of Science in Information Technology By Mary Rose Deuna Ryan Montero Nino Baguio Ralph Michael Balindres Eduard Dave Codera Fritzie D. Skinner Adviser March 2015 Dedication . Ballot , Democracy , Election 1662 Words | 10 Pages. Our Lady of Fatima University IN VITRO DETERMINATION OF THE ANTHELMINTIC PROPERTY OF FORMULATED SYRUP FROM CYPERUS ROTUNDUS, CYPERACEAE (BARSANGA) . CRUDE EXTRACT An Undergraduate Thesis Presented to 5 paragraph, the Faculty of the College of Pharmacy Our Lady of and effect on homeless Fatima University In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy By: Arellano, Angelique Dominika M. Bernas, Karol C. 5 Paragraph Comparative. Cabulay, Ivy Mariz C. Calimpusan, Charisse B. Courage. Dela Cruz, Francheska. Cyperus rotundus , Hydrochloric acid , Intestinal parasite 1801 Words | 7 Pages. Write. Centro Escolar University An Undergraduate School IMPLEMENTATION OF 7S IN HRM FOOD LABORATORY BY THIRD YEAR HRM STUDENTS IN CEU MANILA A . Thesis Presented to Ms.
E. Cajayon Centro Escolar University In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management by Vlairene J. Bracamonte Ferdinand Ken Banson Rynyll Dyx G. Bernal Ace H. Magat Edlloyd R. Panim CHAPTER I The Problem and Its Background Introduction Centro Escolar. Centro Escolar University , Future , Kaizen 1649 Words | 7 Pages. produce highly personal images. Eve Arnold Friendship, Work, End --In things to be seen at once, much variety makes confusion, another vice of . beauty . In things that are not seen at once, and have no respect one to another, great variety is commendable, provided this variety transgress not the rules of optics and geometry. Christopher Wren Beauty , Great, Respect --Geometry was the handbook mla papers research writer first exciting course I remember. Steven Chu Remember, Exciting --Human knowledge is dark and write 5 paragraph uncertain;. Essay. Carl Friedrich Gauss , Federico Garcia Lorca , Geometry 934 Words | 5 Pages. Essay. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AND MANAGEMENT SKILLS OF SELECTED THIRD YEAR HIGHSCHOOL STUDENTS OF HSL - BRAILLE . COLLEGE SCHOOL YEAR 2013 - 2014 “In Partial Fulfillment for the Requirement in Thesis Writing for cause essay people Complete Secondary Course” Submitted by: JESTERYLL M. Comparative. RESUELLO DAZERLY ANICETO Submitted to: SIR ERROL G. SUMAGAYSAY Subject Teacher “We must use time wisely and thesis 99 forever realize that . Write Comparative. 1950s , Goal , Leadership 697 Words | 4 Pages. Skip to statements reagan, main content You are logged in as Letitia Andersen (Logout) . . Page pathHome / My units / E0144 Diploma of . Beauty Therapy Study Period 1 / Topic 4 / 22200/01 Communicate in the workplace - Written as. . Assessment Submission Click on write 5 paragraph comparative essay, the ' Upload Files' link below to upload your completed assessments for grading and 100 creator feedback. To help Open Colleges manage your assessment, please use the following file naming convention. Assessment , Computer file , Evaluation 306 Words | 6 Pages. EFFECTIVENESS Comments Suggestions: . _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ANGELO A. CRUZ, MSIT Thesis Adviser . Body mass index , Google , Health 528 Words | 3 Pages.
The Advantages and Disadvantages of comparative essay Art Therapy Phua Yu Ting HELP University Outline I. Introduction A. Atticus Courage. Opener: B. Thesis . Write 5 Paragraph Comparative Essay. statement: There are advantages and disadvantages of art therapy . II. The first advantage of art therapy is it helps people to 100 resume creator, express thoughts, feelings, and write comparative essay conflicts. A. Adults 1. Self-discovery and self-expression 2. On People Dependent On Technology. Emotional growth B. Children 1. Relief stress 2. Express feelings with limited vocabularies III. Art therapy provides individuals with control over specific. Art , Art therapy , Arts 2061 Words | 10 Pages.
Grieve 1 Thomas Grieve English 2010 Professor Memmott 17 November 2011 Thesis and essay Outline for the Final Paper Thesis : . Children affected with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) experience frustration trying to accomplish simple everyday tasks, but with the help of medication and the involvement of parents, educators, professionals, daycare providers, and oneself they are able to better control their actions and behaviors to achieve success. I. What is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity. Thesis Statements About. ADHD predominantly inattentive , Attention , Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder 1277 Words | 5 Pages. Comparative Essay. examination and exploration of issues arising from the thesis statements about ronald use and comparative essay diversion of prescription medications among problematic drug users in a Northern conurbation . Identity and atticus essay Illicit Drug Use: The Social and Personal Construction of 'Drugs Cultures' Therapy as qualitative self-research: a discursive approach The social construction of comparative motherhood within the psychological and sociocultural context Investigating journeys through 'Madness' Nurse Practitioner Practice - Issues and Experiences PhD by courage Published. Write Essay. Chronic , Drug addiction , Drug use 955 Words | 4 Pages. small business owners and inventory management professionals to track sales and inventory also be automatically alerted when reordering is necessary. Most . Excel based inventory list spreadsheet are just for handbook mla papers research the inventory managing and tracking, the beauty of this spreadsheets is write comparative combine the sales and inventory data into one sheets, it will record and update your inventory level based on research, your inventory input and sales output data. It will tell you the latest inventory that you have, it will generate.
Business , Inventory , Inventory control system 1009 Words | 4 Pages. N.T Senior Thesis Analysis of Khaled Hosseini best selling novel “The Kite Runner “ The story of the Kite Runner is fictional, but . it is rooted in real political and historical events ranging from the last days of the Afghan monarchy in the 1970s to the post-Taliban near present-day. Hosseini also pulls from his own memories and experiences growing up in the Wazir Akbar Khan section of Kabul and his adaptation to life in California. Khaled Hosseini’s aim was to not only call attention. Afghanistan , Hazara people , Kabul 2205 Words | 6 Pages. Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila College of Engineering and Technology Chemical Engineering Department CHE 513 EQUIPMENT DESIGN (LEC) JUNE 2013 . Thesis Proposal | “Utilization of Musa acuminata (Cavendish Banana) Peel for the Production of Pection via Ammonium oxalate-Extraction” | BS Chemical Engineering | Anonuevo, Eula Mae Carla R. Fortuny, Emyl V. Falculan, Mae Florizel T. Leonen, Dianna Lyn T. INTRODUCTION RAW MATERIAL The Dwarf Cavendish banana (or simply Cavendish.
Banana , Banana cultivars , Cavendish banana 861 Words | 3 Pages. THE LUXURIOUS COSMETICS BRAND NAME OF “L’OVITE PARIS” OF INTERNATIONAL CONSUMER PRODUCTS (ICP) JOINT-STOCK COMPANY 1 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 4 1.1 . Write Comparative Essay. NECESSITY OF THE THESIS 4 1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE RESEARCH 5 1.3 KEY RESEARCH AREA 5 1.4 METHODOLOGY 5 1.5 CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE THESIS 6 1.6 THESIS STRUCTURE 6 2 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 6 3 LITERATURE REVIEW ON MARKETING PLANNING AND GENERAL ABOUT COSMETIC INDUSTRY IN THE WORLD AND IN VIETNAM 6 3.1 Literature. Ancient Egypt , Cosmetics , Egypt 758 Words | 3 Pages. 100 Creator. “The Biology of Facial Beauty ”, an write 5 paragraph comparative essay article from the International Journal of Cosmetic Science, states that it is common misconception that . beauty is unsystematic. On Technology. In fact, due to the contributions of biology, beauty is very predictable despite various factors, such as nationality, age, and race (317). This article is 5 paragraph comparative essay captivating and informative.
Nevertheless, it could be improved by establishing a more clear-cut thesis and only selecting a few biological aspects of essay on technology beauty to research and write 5 paragraph comparative essay analyze. Biology , Critical thinking , Evidence 1008 Words | 3 Pages. the population by age 50. Hemorrhoid Treatment There are several home remedies (warm sitz baths, dietary changes, stool softeners, exercise, OTC . medication); or surgery to thesis 99, repair the hemorrhoid such as rubber band ligation, sclerotherapy, laser therapy , hemorrhoidectomy, and stapled hemorrhoidectomy. Antibiotic , Antifungal drug , Athlete's foot 1421 Words | 6 Pages. Real beauty is the natural beauty. ?Outline Thesis sentence In this paper, I am going to 5 paragraph comparative, analyze the on people on technology purpose, ethos, logos and diction in Grace Suh’s “The Eye of the write Beholder”. . On Technology. Introduction Hook “Does people often judge people by their appearances?” The answer is definitely yes. The one who looks nice can leave a good impression on others. Background information Aesthetic Plastic Surgery report, Americans spent almost $11 billion on cosmetic procedures in 2012. Body paragraph (1) Purpose is defined as author’s goals;. Write. Cosmetics , Lip gloss , Lipstick 1270 Words | 4 Pages. On People On Technology. ? BEAUTIES OF NATURE We live among the beauties of nature and beauties of nature live in write us.
All around . can be seen the mysteries of nature. Both the animate and the inanimate objects of nature offer new scenes like a film on the screen. Nature is an integral part of thesis 99 our lives. But even while we appreciate the blessings she bestows on us, we forget that we are plundering her treasures and thereby denying our children the 5 paragraph essay pleasure of enjoying nature in all her abundance and on technology variety in the. Autumn , Color , Sky 766 Words | 3 Pages. Thesis : Is Music Therapy Effective? ?. Is music therapy effective on psychopathology? A. children with . psychopathology B. adolescents with psychopathology ?. Is music therapy effective on anxiety? A. pregnant women and write comparative essay baby ?. Statements About Ronald. Is music therapy effective on older people? A. depression on write 5 paragraph essay, old age B. On People Dependent. effect of write essay music Conclusion :Music is very useful therapy . God made all the parts of our body such as eyes, arms. Anxiety , Effect , Effectiveness 1965 Words | 6 Pages.
As it relates to theories of statements reagan literary criticism, French poet Charles Baudelaire’s “Hymn to Beauty ” cannot be compared to just one analytical . Write Essay. doctrine. Baudelaire was a complex man whose internal struggles were often expressed in his writings. Embodying themes of sensuality, wonton abandon, and death and and effect redemption, the poem “Hymn to Beauty ” must be analyzed using both gender and psychological criticisms. Write 5 Paragraph Comparative Essay. “Gender criticism examines how the sexual identity influences the creation and reception of. Thesis 99. Charles Baudelaire , French poetry , Literary criticism 1194 Words | 3 Pages. they truly are from inside. The song “Natural Beauty ” from Immortal Technique is a song that gives a message to all the people out there who . feel insecure about themselves.
It shows that you just need to be yourself and everything will go smooth, because if you don’t find yourself beautiful, then it would give you a harder time to socialize with friends and you would have the feeling of being uncomfterable. A literary device that the song “Natural Beauty ” has is metaphor, for the fact that all the. Write 5 Paragraph Comparative. Fandom , Human skin color , Immortal Technique 899 Words | 3 Pages. Cheating Beauty ? Beauty Pageant is a competition based on the women’s physical beauty . Sometimes clothing, . modeling, gesturing, talent and handbook writer personal interview are considered for essay choosing a winner, the beauty queen. Every contestant will try to enhance her make-up skill, hairstyle, body shape, and cause and effect people even knowledge of the world in comparative order to have the best performance and on people on technology accomplish the final stage of the competition. Doing cosmetic surgery is one kind of methods to “modify” one’s flaw and achieve. Beauty , Beauty contest , Ethics 2029 Words | 5 Pages. ?Bill Braxton Braxton October 29, 2013 Argumentative essay rough . 5 Paragraph Comparative Essay. draft ENC 1101-001 Mr. Hinson Word count-1,017 Thesis : Beauty pageants should be outlawed for girls under sixteen because they over expose young women, teach them that being self absorbed is okay, and finch courage there are other hobbies the write 5 paragraph essay girls could pick up that would teach better qualities and allow kids to be kids. I. Can make children self. Beauty , Beauty contest , Child 818 Words | 3 Pages. Queens of cause essay people Beauty Every person wants to know their worth.
They want to be known and want someone else to verify the one thing she should . already know. You are gorgeous. You are beautiful. The first impressions are based on appearance and pose. Some people find enjoyment in competing on who looks the best, who has the best talent, and who is a team player.
Beauty pageants or contests are widely accepted all over the world with women, men, and children who eat, breathe, and sleep excelling in write 5 paragraph comparative essay all. Armi Kuusela , Beauty , Beauty contest 1070 Words | 3 Pages. Edwin Turner Inner Beauty to Physical Beauty There are two categories of beauty : inner beauty and on people dependent on technology . physical beauty . Physical beauty is exterior beauty , which is pleasing to the eye. Write 5 Paragraph Essay. Inner beauty relates to an individual's personality and character traits, which are pleasing to the heart. Thesis 99. Usually, you can spot a person who has a deep inner beauty by the bright shine coming from their eyes.
They are usually truthful people, without being arrogant or rude. A person with inner beauty is always happy to. Aesthetics , Averageness , Beauty 815 Words | 3 Pages. Psychological Therapy: Family Therapy. Write Essay. Family Therapy is a type of therapy that focuses on the relationship between family members or partners. While other type of . therapy look at individual patients alone, family therapy brings family relationships into thesis statements about reagan, the picture.
The goal of this therapy is to explore the relationships with other family members that may be the potential cause of the write comparative problem or problems of the identified patient (Exploring 503). Atticus. There are multiple approaches that a family therapist may take. Some of the write comparative essay major techniques. Finch Essay. Clinical psychology , Family , Family therapy 1039 Words | 3 Pages. Defining Beauty Written throughout the write comparative essay pages of modern magazines, lies the research destruction and 5 paragraph essay expulsion of girls’ self esteems. Women’s . bodies sell everything from food to cars in a lust filled light. They are displayed all around the nation for other women and girls to look upon. Why are standards of thesis 99 beauty being imposed on women, the majority of whom are naturally larger and more mature than any of the models? The answer is 5 paragraph comparative economic.
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The Red and comparative The Real: An Essay on resume creator Color Ontology. Jonathan Cohen, The Red and comparative The Real: An Essay on Color Ontology , Oxford UP, 2009, 260pp., $75.00 (hbk), ISBN 9780199556168. Reviewed by Adam Pautz, University of thesis 99, Texas at Austin. In his admirable and write 5 paragraph comparative essay engaging book, Jonathan Cohen defends relationalism about color. Roughly, relationalism is the traditional view that colors are constituted in terms of relations between objects and subjects. On Cohen's version, necessarily, something is red, for cause people, instance, just in 5 paragraph comparative essay case it (non-deviantly) causes reddish experiences in the relevant individuals in the relevant circumstances. This theory contrasts with non-relationalism . One well-known version has it that colors are necessarily identical with (or supervenient on) response-independent reflectance properties of objects.
Cohen has defended relationalism in numerous articles but his book contains much new material, develops a coherent package, and provides important and thorough discussions of 100 resume, nearly every theory of color. The book is also fun to read. Cohen is a real color enthusiast, and this comes through on write 5 paragraph the printed page. Cohen offers a 'master argument' for relationalism based on perceptual variation. The argument is an old one but Cohen provides the most thorough and sophisticated defense to date. Let us focus throughout on thesis 99 one of Cohen's examples (p.30). Due to 5 paragraph innate individual differences between John and cause and effect on homeless people Jane's visual systems, the same color chip looks unitary green (a green not tinged with any other hue) to write essay John and green-blue to Jane. John judges it to be unitary green and Jane judges it to be green-blue. There is no apparent reason to say John is cause and effect essay people, right and Jane is write essay, wrong and cause and effect there is no apparent reason to say the opposite. Following Cohen, let us use 'variants' for the different color representations in cases of apparently normal variation.
There are three options: the eliminativist view that all variants are strictly speaking wrong, the comparative essay, inegalitarian view that one variant is right and all others are wrong, and atticus finch courage essay the pluralist view that all are right. 5 Paragraph Comparative Essay! Briefly, Cohen's master argument for his relationalism, applied to this case, has two steps. First step: We should be pluralists, not inegalitarians. Cohen relies on the principle 'avoid ad hoc stipulation where possible' together with the claim that inegalitarianism requires ad hoc stipulation (25, 52). He also says it is handbook mla papers research writer, hard to imagine what could make inegalitarianism true (22, 25, 46 n.2).
Here he implicitly relies on an innocuous truth-maker principle requiring that if inegalitarianism is true something must make it true. Second step: Cohen's relationalism is the write 5 paragraph comparative essay, best form of pluralism. Cohen advocates a contextualist-relationalist account of color attributions: an utterance of ' a is C ' is statements ronald reagan, true in 5 paragraph comparative essay context K iff a causes C -experiences in the K -relevant individuals in the K -relevant circumstances. In the courage essay, John-Jane case, the contextually-relevant individuals and circumstances shrink and 5 paragraph comparative essay concern those very individuals and their present circumstances (120). So John's utterance counts as true just in case the chip causes a unitary green experience in an individual with an instance of and effect, John's precise perceptual system type in an instance of the precise type of perceptual circumstance that John is in. Jane's utterance counts as true just in case the chip causes a green-blue experience in write comparative an individual with an instance of Jane's precise perceptual system type in atticus finch courage essay an instance of the precise type of perceptual circumstance that Jane is in . Frank Jackson, Robert Pargetter and write 5 paragraph essay Brian McLaughlin have defended similar accounts on the basis of similar considerations.  I will now describe in greater detail Cohen's argument and his relationalism, raising some potential problems along the way. Cohen's argument. Cohen's first step is to mla papers research argue for 5 paragraph comparative essay, pluralism over inegalitarianism and eliminativism. I begin with worries about Cohen's principle-based arguments against inegalitarianism, and then turn to eliminativism. Cohen invokes the principle 'avoid ad hoc stipulation' together with the claim that inegalitarianism requires ad hoc stipulation.
Stipulation is a human activity. So, taken literally, he means that under inegalitarianism human activity would be required to make John or Jane right. But of course the inegalitarian will cite (perhaps unknowable) chromatic facts independent of human activity. So Cohen's meaning is unclear. Maybe 'inegalitarianism requires ad hoc stipulation' is shorthand for essay dependent, Cohen's point that there is 'no independent and write essay well-motivated' way of identifying the thesis 99, uniquely veridical variant (24). But inegalitarians can admit this. Inegalitarianism is the existential claim that in actual variation cases some variant or other is right and the others wrong. Inegalitarians might say that we have a reason to believe this existential claim (to be discussed presently), without having reason to believe, of any variant, that it is the uniquely veridical variant. They can explain our irremediable ignorance.
Color experience is our ultimate source of evidence about the (in their view) response-independent colors of things. There is no independent test for write essay, color. This is partly because colors, in contrast to primary qualities like shapes, are relatively acausal. For instance, whether the chip is unitary green or not does not have any effect on how it interacts with other objects. So in cases of normal variation there is no way to break the impasse.
We know that the color chip is roughly green but we cannot determine its exact shade. Cohen eventually addresses this quietist inegalitarianism. Again he repeats that it requires ad hoc stipulation (52). Here we definitely cannot interpret Cohen to mean 'there is atticus finch, no independent and write 5 paragraph comparative essay well-motivated way of identifying the essay on homeless people, uniquely veridical variant', for quietists admit that. 5 Paragraph Comparative! Maybe Cohen means that, not only is there no reason to accept any particular witness to courage the existential claim that defines inegalitarianism, there is also no reason to accept the existential claim itself (50). But Cohen neglects the argument motivating inegalitarians. The first premise is realism: in 5 paragraph comparative essay cases of actual variation, at least one variant is correct. The second premise is the atticus courage, conflict intuition: variants conflict, so that at most one variant is correct. 5 Paragraph Essay! For instance, intuitively, when John says 'the chip is unitary green' and Jane says 'the chip is 100 resume, green-blue', they cannot both be right, contrary to Cohen's pluralism. The conclusion is write, that some variant or other is veridical and all the atticus courage, others are not, even if we cannot identify it. 
Cohen's second principle-based argument against inegalitarianism relies on write 5 paragraph comparative a truth-maker principle. But the inegalitarian has a simple reply. Thesis 99! Let us first consider the reply in write connection with the reductive inegalitarianism of Byrne, Hilbert, and Tye, among others. Reductive inegalitarianism is inegalitarianism combined with the claim that colors are identical with some physical properties or other, such as reflectance-types . According to creator the simple reply, what makes it the case that John is right and Jane is comparative, wrong (as it might be) is simply that John represents the chip as having a color (on this view, a reflectance-type) that it does have while Jane represents it as having a color (reflectance-type) that it does not have. Cause And Effect Essay On Homeless People! This representational difference is not mysterious: it supervenes on a difference in John and Jane's color processing. Call this the supervenience answer to Cohen's truth-maker question 'What makes it the case that one variant is veridical and the other is write, not?'  Cohen objects that this does not answer the truth-maker question (46-7 n2), even though it specifies a truth-maker. Apparently, Cohen is not merely insisting on a truth-maker, but on a truth-maker specifiable in interestingly different terms : a reductive answer to the truth-maker question. Assuming the reductionist requirement , inegalitarianism does look implausible. Say that someone stands in the sensory representation relation to a property just in case he has an experience that represents something as having that property. Thesis Reagan! For reductive inegalitarians, who identify colors with reflectance-types, a reductive theory of the sensory representation relation (a psychosemantics) in 5 paragraph comparative terms of tracking under optimal conditions is very natural, since our visual systems obviously track reflectance-types.
But such a theory is inconsistent with inegalitarianism. The brain states realizing John and Jane's color experiences each track a range of reflectances (a reflectance-type) under a range of optimal conditions. Since the present conditions are within the optimal range, these ranges of cause and effect people, reflectances include the actual reflectance of the chip, and so overlap. But, if John and Jane represent different colors, as Cohen argues (90-94), then, on a tracking theory, the relevant ranges must be slightly distinct. So, under a tracking theory, we get the result that the fine-grained colors that John and Jane represent are identical with highly overlapping but distinct ranges of write 5 paragraph comparative essay, reflectances, both of which the chip instantiates.
In short, the about, tracking theory goes with (non-relational) pluralism, not inegalitarianism. The point is robust with respect to 5 paragraph essay theories of sensory representation: indicator theories, output-oriented consumer theories, and so on. There is 100, reason to believe that in 5 paragraph comparative principle there can be no true reductive account of sensory representation supporting the reductive inegalitarian's claim that John represents a reflectance-type that the chip has while Jane does not, rather than vice versa .  This is resume, not an argument Cohen develops. On the contrary, when he discusses reductionism about sensory representation, he says that it cannot be used to support a view on the inegalitarianism-pluralism debate (61-62). This is strange, because, as we have seen, in his response to write 5 paragraph essay the supervenience answer to his truth-maker objection to inegalitarianism, Cohen seems to be implicitly suggesting this very argument: a reductive answer (framed in interestingly different terms) to the truth-maker question is required, but such an answer cannot be provided even in principle. In any case, any argument against inegalitarianism from the atticus finch courage essay, reductionist requirement is difficult to defend. The main problem is simply that, since reductive theories have a history of failure, our credence in reductionism should be low.
For instance, suppose John says some action is wrong and Jane says it is not wrong. Maybe moral realism is right, and one of the two is correct about the moral status of the action and the other is incorrect, but there is no reductive theory of moral properties and comparative essay their representation which specifies what makes this the cause essay people, case in non-moral and non-intentional terms. Maybe the best answer is the supervenience answer. Many (for instance, Barry Stroud and John Campbell) advocate a similar view of color -- they are called 'primitivists'. And many (e. g. Mark Johnston, Saul Kripke, John McDowell, Hilary Putnam, Timothy Williamson) advocate a general anti-reductionist approach to intentionality. However, in the case of reductive inegalitarianism, Cohen might recast the write comparative, argument in such a way that it does not require reductionism.
He can simply point out on people on technology, that reductive inegalitarians like Byrne, Hilbert and Tye arguably have an inconsistent position . Write Comparative Essay! They accept reductionism about on people dependent on technology, color, identifying colors with reflectance-types. Whatever reasons they have to be reductionists about 5 paragraph essay, color (causal considerations, avoiding danglers), they are presumably general, so that they are equally reasons to be reductionists about the sensory representation relation that we bear to reflectance-types. But then they accept an approach to variation cases, namely inegalitarianism, that we have reason to believe to be inconsistent with their commitment to reductionism about sensory representation! In short, reductive inegalitarians are committed to what seems not to exist: an interesting reductive (not a mere supervenience) answer to the truth-maker question of the kind Cohen seems to require. But, to fully dispose of inegalitarianism, Cohen must rule out primitivist inegalitarianism as well as reductive inegalitarianism. Primitivist inegalitarians share with reductive inegalitarians a commitment to inegalitarianism but reject their reductive aspirations.
According to thesis 99 primitivist inegalitarians, colors are properties of physical objects that are not identical with, although they might supervene on, the physical properties of those objects. They will provide the simple supervenience answer to Cohen's truth-maker question, as follows. Write Comparative! The color chip is unitary green, not green-blue. Essay Dependent! John's experience represents the chip as unitary green, and Jane represents it as green-blue. So John is write essay, right and Jane is wrong. On People! No interesting reductive account of the sensory representation relation churns out this verdict. As we have seen, tracking accounts do not. Write Comparative Essay! But the verdict is not mysterious, because it is fixed by the physical facts (e. g. Handbook Mla Papers! John's undergoing 'unitary' processing). Likewise, a primitivist inegalitarian who is a 'disjunctivist' might say that John but not Jane is conscious of the chip's being unitary green (this state of the world is 'laid bare' to him) because his internal processing both tracks and suitably 'matches' this state of the world while Jane's processing is 'off'. Although he briefly discusses primitivism in general, Cohen neglects primitivist inegalitarianism and its bearing on his master argument. How might he rule it out?
Reductive inegalitarianism might fail simply because reductionism and 5 paragraph inegalitarianism are inconsistent, but evidently the same charge cannot be brought against primitivist inegalitarianism, which has no commitment to reductionism. Thesis Statements Ronald! Since primitivist inegalitarianism provides a supervenience answer to the truth-maker question, Cohen will presumably say it does not go deep enough -- a response which implicitly relies on write 5 paragraph comparative essay some form of on homeless, reductionism, as noted above. I have two points. First, as already noted, since at write 5 paragraph, the present stage of inquiry our credence in reductionism should be low, many will say that this argument is 100 resume, not particularly strong. It requires far more than an write, innocuous truth-maker principle.
Second, although Cohen styles his master argument as based on the uncontestable empirical fact of actual variation, this argument against primitivist inegalitarianism has nothing to do with actual variation -- it relies on thesis 99 general metaphysical commitments. Let us now turn to a quite different rival to Cohen's pluralism: the eliminativist view that in cases of actual variation all the 5 paragraph essay, variants are (strictly speaking) mistaken. Cohen offers a Moorean argument against thesis about, eliminativism. He says that, since realism is common sense (as Cohen puts it 'part of the manifest image'), we should accept realism and reject eliminativism, unless a sufficiently strong argument can be presented for rejecting realism and accepting eliminativism. And he says that there is write 5 paragraph essay, no such argument (65ff). I think there are potential problems with Cohen's Moorean argument. First, Mooreanism is often uncritically assumed but requires explanation and essay on people dependent defense. Do philosophers really think that the mere fact that a belief is part of common sense in itself provide a reason to accept it?  (Strangely, Cohen later (107) himself says he is open to error theories -- namely his second and comparative essay third 'strategies' at pp.
104-5.) Second, one version of eliminativism, conciliatory eliminativism , accommodates common sense. Essay Dependent! It holds that physical objects strictly speaking do not instantiate color properties, but when we say 'lemons are yellow' when speak truly because all we mean is that lemons present a certain color property not instantiated by physical objects to normal percipients under normal conditions. This version of eliminativism is very much like Cohen's relationalism in its semantics. Write Comparative!  Third, Cohen's Moorean argument requires that there is no sufficiently strong argument for eliminativism. But the following two-step argument may escape his criticisms. The first step is the primitivist view that colors (if they exist) are irreducible. The justification for this step is a piecemeal argument from elimination, or better, an inference to thesis ronald the best explanation: primitivism provides a better overall explanation of the facts about color and color experience than the various forms of reductionism, including Cohen's reductive relationalism.
The second step says that, once we accept primitivism, we ought to accept eliminative primitivism rather than realist primitivism: revising common sense is better than inflating our ontology. Write! Cohen raises two criticisms of the first step. First, he says that piecemeal argumentation is and effect on homeless, problematic, since 'refutations [of rival views -- in this case reductionist views] in philosophy are almost never decisive' (65). Comparative! Second, he says his own reductive relationalism has not be eliminated: it avoids the problems primitivists bring against it (73). Cohen's first criticism is strange because, as should be clear by now, Cohen himself is effectively providing a piecemeal argument from elimination (or more charitably, inference to the best explanation) for his own relationalism (more on this below). The criticism also seems too strong. To be justified in accepting a theory (even a revisionary one), one need not have decisive refutations of rivals: one must show only that it is overall better than rivals. Statements Ronald Reagan! And Cohen's second criticism requires much more defense.
Granted, Cohen describes solutions to some problems facing his reductive relationalism, but the write 5 paragraph comparative essay, primitivist might say that they are not plausible. And, as we shall see below, Cohen neglects some problems, which are avoided by eliminative primitivism. Thesis About! Showing that Cohen's reductive relationalism is overall superior to eliminative primitivism would require extensive discussion. So, it is write comparative essay, possible to resume creator question the first step of Cohen's master argument, which says that pluralism beats inegalitarianism and eliminativism. But let us now turn to 5 paragraph comparative the second step, which says that Cohen's relationalism is the best version of pluralism. Why is it necessary to show that relationalism is the best version of pluralism? Isn't relationalism the finch courage, only version? This is not the case: non-relational pluralism is write essay, a possibility. On this view, unitary green and green-blue are both response-independent, non-relational properties of objects. Thesis 99! John and Jane are both right, because the chip has both properties. In general, every object has a cluster of closing resembling determinate colors.
But not every color: if one said the chip is orange, one would be wrong. Essay! The non-relational pluralist might identify the colors in the cluster with overlapping but distinct reflectance-types. Or he might say that they are overlapping primitive properties supervenient on reflectance-types. Although it is not obligatory (an important point that will arise again below), non-relational pluralists about color often accept a selectionist account of the perception (that is, on an intentional view, the representation ) of colors. Selection is a metaphor that is never adequately explained. But a familiar tracking psychosemantics for color representation of the kind mentioned above might provide an example. 100 Creator! As we saw above, John and Jane's visual systems might optimally track (and hence select) overlapping but distinct reflectance-types (or perhaps primitive properties supervenient on 5 paragraph such reflectance-types) belonging to the chip. So, on a tracking theory, the on technology, colors they sensorily represent are identical with these distinct but overlapping non-relational properties of the chip. In general, standard psychosemantics for sensory representation not only help to explain selection, but also provide a potential argument for this type of non-relational pluralism (for more on essay this see the third problem for relationalism discussed below). On a natural account of interspecies variation (e. g. between a human and a UV-sensitive pigeon), different species track and thereby perceive overlapping but distinct chromatic properties of the same objects.
On the present account, something similar applies to intraspecies cases like that of John and Jane, only it is on people dependent on technology, more subtle.  Cohen did not address non-relational pluralism in previous work, apparently assuming that a non-relational view is automatically an inegalitarian view. Cohen cannot use actual cases of write 5 paragraph comparative, normal variation to support his relational pluralism over creator, non-relational pluralism, because both seem to be able to provide the kind of pluralist account of such cases that Cohen favors. To show his relational pluralism to be superior, he turns to a hypothetical case (81-8). Maxwell is an actual person and Twin Maxwell is a hypothetical individual who occupies a possible world in write essay which the evolution of color vision proceeded somewhat differently than in the actual world. Alternatively, Maxwell and Twin Maxwell might be supposed to belong to distinct but similar species in the same world.
They are exactly alike at the receptoral level. Indeed, by stipulation, when they view the about reagan, same object, x , they stand in write 5 paragraph comparative essay the optimal tracking relation to the very same non-relational chromatic property of x : there is not just overlap but complete identity in what they optimally track. But, the case continues, they differ radically in postreceptoral opponent processing and color-related sorting and discriminatory behavior. In fact, we might suppose they differ in these respects more radically than John and Jane do. Statements Reagan! This is a theory-neutral description of the case. Cohen argues that Maxwell and Twin Maxwell would represent x as having different colors, for instance unitary blue and orange . One argument for this verdict is that they would have phenomenally different color experiences.
And, as Cohen argues (91), if two individuals have different color experiences, and the difference is not due to a difference in 5 paragraph essay illumination, then nothing could be more natural than to say things look different in color to them. (Indeed, although Cohen himself remains neutral on whether there would be an experiential difference in the Maxwell-Twin Maxwell case, it seems to me that there would be a representational difference only if there would be an finch courage essay, experiential difference.) This verdict is bolstered by consideration of other cases. In general, if two individuals track the same external properties (chemical properties, bodily disturbances, shapes), but undergo radically different internal processing (across-fiber patterns, somatosensory firing rates, shape processing), and exhibit radically different affective and sorting behavior, then arguably things experientially seem different to them. This is not total internalism about experiential content, but only the weak claim that internal factors play some role. But in the Maxwell-Twin Maxwell case, in contrast to write the John-Jane case, selectionism cannot accommodate the verdict of different color contents, at atticus courage, least if selection is explained in terms of 5 paragraph essay, tracking. In the John-Jane case, the selectionist can speculate that, since John and on people Jane represent different colors, and since (on a natural version of his view) representing is tracking, they must optimally track subtly distinct (albeit overlapping) reflectance-types. Write 5 Paragraph! The selectionist might similarly handle every actual case of normal variation. By contrast, in thesis statements ronald the Maxwell-Twin Maxwell case, it is stipulated that on viewing x they bear the optimal tracking relation to the very same non-relational reflectance-type possessed by write, x . Generally, for any naturalistic relation that might ground selection, they bear that relation to the same non-relational chromatic property of x . So even if x has multiple non-relational chromatic properties, a selectionist account of how Maxwell and Twin Maxwell ostensibly perceive different such properties seems impossible. By contrast, Cohen says that one can easily say that Maxwell and Twin Maxwell represent x as having the different color properties, if we adopt his relational pluralism and resume creator construe them as relational properties along the write comparative essay, lines of causing a unitary blue experience in Maxwell and thesis about ronald causing an orange experience in write Twin Maxwell (88). But there is an escape route available to the non-relational pluralist that Cohen does not address.
As noted above, although non-relational pluralists typically accept selectionist accounts of variation, this is not obligatory. So, in thesis 99 response to the Maxwell-Twin Maxwell case, non-relationalist pluralists about write 5 paragraph, color might simply reject selectionism about color perception - at least if selection is explained in terms of tracking as Cohen suggests. Thesis About Reagan! For instance, if he is 5 paragraph comparative essay, a standard intentionalist , he might say the cause essay people, following. The object x has a number of write 5 paragraph comparative essay, non-relational colors clustering around unitary blue. Contrary to tracking theories, color representation is not fully determined by tracking; it is partially determined by internal-cum-behavioral factors.
Since Maxwell and Twin Maxwell differ in such factors, they represent different colors. Maxwell accurately represents x as unitary blue. But Twin Maxwell's opponent processing is thesis 99, off, so he inaccurately represents x as orange. On this view, colors themselves are not constituted by relations to subjects, but which of 5 paragraph, them we represent partially depends on thesis reagan facts about subjects. Analogy: arguably, what shapes we are conscious of depends on shape-processing, but shapes are not constituted by relations to 5 paragraph essay subjects. Alternatively, if he is a disjunctivist , the non-relationalist pluralist might say that Maxwell is conscious of x 's being unitary blue (this state of the world is 'laid bare' to him) because his internal processing both tracks and suitably matches this state of the world. By contrast, Twin Maxwell's processing is 'off', so he does not perceive any of the multiple bluish colors of x . Instead, he has an 100 resume, illusory experience of x as orange. In short, the 5 paragraph comparative, suggestion is that, although the non-relational pluralist provides a pluralist account of on people on technology, moderate cases of variation like that of write 5 paragraph comparative, John and Jane, he might provide a inegalitarian account of the more extreme cases typified by dependent, Maxwell and Twin Maxwell. Call this the internal-dependence gambit . Of course, since for comparative essay, the non-relational pluralist the internal-dependence gambit requires an atticus finch courage essay, inegalitarian account of the Maxwell-Twin Maxwell case, Cohen will raise his usual objection to inegalitarianism: the non-relational pluralist can only provide a (by his lights, inadequate) non-reductive, supervenience answer to the question 'what makes it the case that Maxwell is right and Twin Maxwell is wrong?'. By contrast, Cohen's account of the case might be fully reductive. For instance, he might say Maxwell and Twin Maxwell's different color experiences just are their different internal neural states, and then provide some reductive account of how they (accurately) represent different relational color properties of x (but see below).
But, as already noted, the reductionist requirement is controversial. Perhaps, however, Cohen could raise an essay, epistemic objection to the internal-dependence gambit. On this gambit, apparently, nothing makes it likely that what enhances adaptive fitness also enhances the veridicality of color experience. (Contrast shape experience.) In fact, given the internal-dependence gambit, one can easily imagine cases in which veridicality is improbable: if the non-relational colors possessed by fruits and foliage prior to the evolution of color vision were in fact similar shades of dull brown, creatures would still likely have evolved to see them as having bright, contrasting colors. Essay! So, on this view, if (like Maxwell and unlike Twin Maxwell) we evolved internal wiring that occasionally makes us conscious of 5 paragraph, colors that fall within the narrow color clusters objects had prior to the evolution of finch courage, color vision, then this is complete luck. So, intuitively, on the internal-dependence gambit, even if sometimes we get it right, we can never be credited with chromatic knowledge . Cohen's relationalism escapes the worry: since the colors of things are fixed by the colors they appear to have under normal conditions, veridicality under normal conditions is virtually guaranteed however we evolved. This concludes my discussion of Cohen's master argument. Cohen briefly mentions an 5 paragraph, interesting distinct argument for 100 resume, relationalism (196-7). It is based on color structure claims like 'purple is a perceptual mixture of blue and red', and 'blue is more like purple than green'.
I think Cohen might have made an additional point in write 5 paragraph comparative favor of statements about, his relationalism and against non-relationalism. Since he provides a non-relational account of 'lemons are yellow' and the like, the non-relationalist ought to provide a parallel non-relational account of these statements that does not mention observers. But, at least if he is a reductive non-relationalist who identifies colors with reflectance-types, the only way to do this is to maintain that the write 5 paragraph essay, truth-conditions of such statements somehow involve grossly complicated, recherche non-linear functions of various kinds, because the people, structure of reflectance-types does not match the 5 paragraph essay, ostensible structure of colors.  It would seem very difficult to devise a theory of representation that explains how this might be so. By contrast, Cohen's relationalism might avoid this complexity. He identifies colors with relations to color experiences. He might identify color experiences with neural states, so that colors have the thesis 99, relevant structural features just in the case the 5 paragraph comparative, relevant neural states do. And, if something like the opponent process theory (discussed by Cohen at atticus courage, p. 83. n.40) is right, then at some level of abstraction they do have right structural features. Let me conclude with a general point. Write 5 Paragraph Essay! Although Cohen's book and philosophical tradition treat actual variation in essay on homeless color appearance as of prime importance in the philosophy of color, in 5 paragraph comparative the end it is unclear how much of a role it might play in an argument for cause and effect people, relationalism or any other theory of color. Granted, it might rule out one view: reductive inegalitarianism.
But it does not rule out 5 paragraph essay, primitivist inegalitarianism, eliminativism, or non-relational pluralism. Cohen can only eliminate these rivals in thesis 99 a piecemeal fashion, appealing to considerations far-removed from actual variation: the reductionist requirement, Mooreanism, hypothetical cases like that involving Maxwell, epistemic considerations, considerations about color structure, and so on. In the end actual variation is just one consideration among many and write 5 paragraph plays a relatively minor role. Cause! This is not a criticism but it suggests Cohen's argument should perhaps not be described as a master argument based on write actual variation. Problems with Relationalism. Cohen's discussion of cause and effect on homeless people, problems is thorough and interesting.
Yet it would have been helpful if Cohen had addressed the following three problems. (1) Suppose John says (i) 'The chip is unitary green'. Later, when John is absent, Jane says (ii) 'the chip is green-blue' and then adds (iii) 'the chip is not unitary green'. As noted at the outset, Cohen achieves his pluralistic aim of 5 paragraph, making utterances (i) and (ii) true by statements about, adopting a contextualist theory and holding that in these cases the write 5 paragraph essay, relevant individuals and thesis about ronald reagan circumstances shrink and concern those very individuals and their present circumstances (120). But this story also has the side-effect of making (iii) as well as (i) and (ii) true. For it is not the case that the chip causes a unitary green experience in 5 paragraph comparative a perceiver with an instance of Jane's precise perceptual system type in an instance of the precise type of perceptual circumstance under which she views the chip; rather, it causes a green-blue experience in this context. Atticus Finch! But we not only have the conflict intuition that (i) and (ii) are incompatible, discussed previously as a motivation for inegalitarianism; we have an even more robust disagreement intuition that (i) and (iii) contradict. (Perhaps if a brown leaf is write, painted green, then in finch courage one context 'the leaf is write 5 paragraph essay, green' counts as true and in another 'the leaf is not green' counts as true; but when the contextually-relevant part of an object o is fixed, as in the John-Jane case, we strongly intuit that ' o is essay, C' and ' o is not C ' contradict.) Even if he is essay, right that his contextualism can sometimes accommodate the disagreement intuition (127-8), it cannot do so in this case. Indeed there are many (though perhaps less serious) problems with contextualism that Cohen does not address: for instance, we report color beliefs disquotationally, which would seem to be an error on contextualism. Many regard disagreement intuitions as a general problem for contextualist theories. But, if a ten year-old says knock-knock jokes are funny, and a comedian says that they are not funny, the disagreement intuition is thesis 99, not particularly robust, contrary to many anti-contextualists.
By contrast, in the color case, the disagreement intuition seems to me more robust, and so more problematic for contextualism. Further, while in many cases there are contextualist-friendly ways of write 5 paragraph comparative, explaining away disagreement intuitions (for instance, saying that there is only disagreement in the sense of an activity among conversational partners), they do not apply in atticus finch courage essay the John-Jane example above.  Cohen might reply that nevertheless a contextualist theory of the kind he favors which forsakes the disagreement intuition is overall best, because accepting the disagreement intuition leads to an intolerable inegalitarianism. But this is not obvious. 5 Paragraph Comparative! For instance, an eliminativist invariantist (non-contextualist/relationalist) theory honors the disagreement intuition but avoids inegalitarianism by making all positive color utterances strictly speaking false. And non-relational pluralism honors the disagreement intuition while avoiding inegalitarianism: on this view, while (i) and thesis statements ronald reagan (ii) are not incompatible, at 5 paragraph comparative essay, least (i) and (iii) are. Finally, contemporary relativism honors the disagreement intuition but avoids inegalitarianism (and so, contrary to Cohen (106, n7), seems germane to his concerns).
It is even more radical than the previous options: in one version, it entails that John can truly say that what he said is accurate and on homeless people what Jane said is inaccurate, and Jane can truly say that what she said is accurate and what John said is inaccurate. (2) Suppose you look at a tomato and have phenomenal property R . Write Comparative Essay! On standard intentionalism, R is identical with sensorily representing red 17 , where red 17 is the fine-grained ostensible color of the tomato. On his relationalism, red 17 is identical with the property of causing the occurrence of phenomenal property R in individual I and circumstance C . The combination of his relationalism and standard intentionalism yields, via substitution, the absurd result that red 17 is identical with the cause on homeless people, property of causing the occurrence of the property of sensorily representing red 17 in individual I and circumstance C . (Cohen (170) resists arguments of this kind by saying that substitution fails because the relevant contexts are intensional, but my version avoids this worry because here the relevant context is an extensional causal context.) So Cohen cannot combine his relationalism about write 5 paragraph essay, color with standard intentionalism or any other theory that explains color experience in terms of cause and effect essay people, a relation to color properties. Write Comparative Essay! He needs an account of R that does not itself appeal to cause essay people ordinary color properties. Cohen mentions some examples: the sense datum theory, Chalmers' perfect colors intentionalism, and write comparative biological type-type identity (170). While Cohen does not take a stand on color experience (even though he said the aim of the book was to 100 develop a coherent package of views), his physicalism means that among these options Cohen must choose the biological theory. But the comparative essay, claim of the biological theory that R is necessarily identical with some internal neural property N goes against much recent work on perceptual experience. It goes against the 'transparency observation'.
Further, R is essentially intentional: it is handbook writer, essentially as of a red and round thing at a certain viewer-relative place. But any neural property N , like a sentence of English, has its intentional properties only contingently owing to its relations to the environment and action: it is not essentially 'as of' a red and round and round thing at a certain place. So how could R be necessarily identical with a mere neural property N ? (3) Cohen's relationalism consists of two major claims (116 and elsewhere). First, the comparative essay, sensory representation claim: if individual I has a visual experience E in fine-grained circumstance C , then E represents the fine-grained relational property causing E in I under C . (This has the mildly strange consequence that no two people ever sensorily represent the same color property. Essay! It also entails that, when a white wall under red light causes one to write 5 paragraph comparative have a pink experience, the pink experience is fully veridical: it veridically represents the handbook mla papers research, wall as causing a pink experience in one.) Second, the linguistic representation claim: color utterances either also represent such fine-grained relational properties (as in the John-Jane case) or (more typically) coarse-grained relational properties of the form causing E in normal individuals under normal circumstances, depending on the linguistic context. There is a psychosemantic argument against both claims. Write Comparative Essay! To illustrate, consider John and Jane.
On Cohen's view, John's unitary green experience G (realized by internal state S1 ) represents causing G in John under circumstance C1 , and Jane's blue-green experience B (realized by internal state S2 ) represents causing B in creator Jane under circumstance C2 . Cohen and many others claim that experiences represent such relational properties involving those very experiences (often called 'appearance properties'), but they have not provided a theory of sensory representation (a psychosemantics) to explain how this might be so.  The worry is write comparative essay, that Cohen's version of the idea is incompatible with any reasonable psychosemantics, for two reasons. First, on cause on homeless any psychosemantics for write, sensory representation, an and effect essay on homeless people, inner state-type like S1 (John's present state) has the same content when it occurs in write 5 paragraph essay different individuals . (That is statements ronald, because S1 's content is determined by its functional-causal role among the general population: as it might be, what it tracks under optimal conditions, or what it has the function of indicating.) It seems very unlikely indeed that S1 's population-wide content is essay, something is causing G in John under C1. Thesis 99! Second, on standard psychosemantics for sensory representation, S1 represents what it caused by under optimal conditions, or what it has the function of indicating . Intuitively, however, S1 is not caused by , nor does it have the function of indicating , the property causing G (realized by S1) in John under circumstance C1. If anything, it is caused by, and has the function of indicating, something like the enduring, biologically important reflectance property of the chip. (If it could be made plausible that S1 is caused by, and has the function of indicating, the 5 paragraph, property of causing G (realized by S1) in John under circumstance C1, then a promiscuity problem would arise: by parity, S1 is caused by, and has the statements ronald, function of indicating, a number of such relational properties (e. Write Essay! g. Finch Courage Essay! causing B in Jane under circumstance C2 ). So this reply implausibly entails that S1 represents a huge number of relational properties.) For these two reasons, it seems to essay me that any psychosemantic theory will entail that John and Jane's sensory states S1 and S2 represent properties O and O* other than Cohen's fine-grained relational properties. Thesis Statements About! As we saw previously, on a tracking or teleological theory, in accordance with non-relational pluralism, O and O* will be overlapping, non-relational reflectance-types. Thus, such theories provide a strong case for non-relational pluralism over Cohen's relational pluralism. Others will say the right theory of sensory representation has it that O and write comparative essay O* are primitive properties of thesis 99, some kind. Now let us turn to Cohen's linguistic claim.
Whereas I have argued that standard theories of sensory representation rule out his sensory representation claim, I do not think that theories of linguistic representation rule out his linguistic claim. After all, some linguistic items (e. Write Comparative Essay! g. 'is funny') presumably do express relational properties (e. g. being funny to ten-year-olds ). But the failure of Cohen's linguistic representation claim might follow directly from the failure of his sensory representation claim, given a plausible harmony principle: the properties represented by mla papers, our color utterances and beliefs are of roughly the same kind as the properties represented by our color experiences. What does 'roughly the same kind' mean? Presumably, the properties represented by color predicates are generally determinables of the highly determinate properties represented by 5 paragraph, our color experiences. Thesis Statements About Reagan! Further, it might be that 'is red' means having a contextually-relevant part that is red , which no color experience represents. But, while color experience may not represent this very property, it does represent (determinates) of 5 paragraph comparative essay, redness. 100! Now we have just seen that, given any reasonable psychosemantics for sensory representation, our color experiences arguably do not represent Cohen's (fine-grained or coarse-grained) relational properties, but some other properties O and O* . 5 Paragraph Essay! Given the harmony principle, it would follow that John and Jane's utterances also do not attribute to the chip Cohen's (fine-grained or coarse-grained) relational properties, but rather properties of roughly the same kind as O and O* (as it might be, overlapping reflectance-types, or primitive non-relational properties). Cohen might reply as follows. John and Jane's color experiences are necessarily identical with neural states S1 and and effect essay S2 . (As we saw, Cohen is under some pressure to adopt this view.) These neural states are apt to 5 paragraph comparative essay cause John and Jane to form certain color beliefs and make certain utterances.
On the best theory of atticus courage essay, their content, the reply continues, they represent Cohen's relational properties, in accordance with his linguistic representation claim. (Above I allowed that no theory of linguistic representation rules out this claim.) Finally, the reply continues, relationalists might reject the kind of tracking-teleological theory of sensory representation mentioned above. Instead, he might accept a doxastic theory of sensory representation, on which (very roughly) a sensory state S represents property P in an individual I if S is apt to cause in I the write 5 paragraph essay, belief that something before him has P . In this derivative sense, John and thesis about reagan Jane's color experiences might be said to represent Cohen's (fine-grained or coarse-grained) relational properties, roughly in accordance with his sensory representation claim. The problem with this response, it seems to write 5 paragraph me, is thesis 99, that it forsakes the extremely plausible and widely-accepted claim that experiences have color contents that are constitutively independent of the contents of the beliefs we form on the basis of those experiences. But, of course, every theory of color and color experience has serious costs. Cohen's book provides the most complete and sophisticated case to write essay date that the considerable benefits of relationalism outweigh its costs. On Homeless People! In addition, it contains important and thorough discussions of nearly every rival theory of color.
Cohen presents his ideas admirably. This is the most important book on color in write comparative essay some time. Bradley, Peter and Tye, Michael. (2001). Of color, kestrels, caterpillars, and leaves. The Journal of Philosophy , 98, 469-487. Byrne, Alex and Hilbert, David. (1997). Colors and reflectances. Atticus Essay! In Readings on Color, Volume 1: The Philosophy of 5 paragraph comparative essay, Color (ed. Thesis 99! A. Byrne and D. R. Hilbert), pp.
263-288. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Byrne, Alex and Hilbert, David. (2004). Hardin, Tye, and color physicalism. Essay! The Journal of mla papers writer, Philosophy , CI(1), 37-43. Byrne, Alex and Hilbert, David. (2007 b ). Truest blue.
Analysis , 67(293), 87-92. Cappelen, Herman and Hawthorne, John. (2009). 5 Paragraph Comparative! Relativism and Monadic Truth. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chalmers, David. And Effect People! (2006). Perception and write essay the fall from Eden. In Perceptual Experience (ed. T. Essay! S. Write Comparative Essay! Gendler and J. Hawthorne), pp. 49-125.
Oxford University Press, New York. Jackson, Frank. (1977). Perception: A Representative Theory . Cambridge University Press, New York. Jackson, Frank and Pargetter, Robert. (1987). An objectivist's guide to subjectivism about color. Revue Internationale de Philosophie , 160, 127-141. Kalderon, Mark. (2007). Color pluralism. The Philosophical Review , 116(4), 563-601. Lewis, David. (1994). Reduction of mind.
In A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind (ed. S. Guttenplan), pp. 412-431. Blackwell, Oxford. MacFarlane, John. (2007). Relativism and cause and effect on homeless disagreement. Philosophical Studies 132, 17-31.
McLaughlin, Brian. (2003). Write Comparative Essay! Color, consciousness, and atticus finch color consciousness. In Consciousness: New Philosophical Perspectives (ed. Q. Smith and A. Jokic), pp. 97-154. Oxford University Press, New York.
Sider, Ted. (forthcoming). Write 5 Paragraph Comparative! Against parthood. Essay On People On Technology! Available at http://tedsider.org/. Tye, Michael. (2006). The puzzle of true blue. Analysis , 66, 173-178.  See Jackson and write 5 paragraph essay Pargetter (1987) and McLaughlin (2003). Thesis 99! There is a difference between these authors and Cohen. They are realizer functionalists about color. By contrast, Cohen's view is unique in that it is role functionalist (184) -- something that was not so clear in 5 paragraph comparative essay some of his earlier work.
However, realizer and role functionalists agree on the truth-conditions of whole color predications; they only disagree about the referents of color nouns. The dispute might appear trivial. Atticus Essay! (Indeed, Lewis (1994, 420) says the write comparative, analogous realizer-role dispute in the mental case is 'superficial'.) But it is related to interesting modal issues, as Cohen discusses (195, 198).  Tye 2006 and essay dependent Byrne and Hilbert 2007 begin with this argument. Cohen might reply that the conflict intuition is dubious on 5 paragraph essay the grounds that a survey conducted by Cohen and Nichols (reported by essay on homeless people, Cohen at 5 paragraph comparative, p. Thesis Reagan! 148) shows that many do not share this intuition. Cohen and Nichols presented undergraduate students with a case of variation and gave them three options: (i) variant 1 is right and variant 2 is wrong, (ii) variant 2 is right and variant 1 is wrong, (iii) there is comparative essay, no (absolute) fact of the matter. Cohen and Nichols found that some students chose (iii). Statements About Reagan! But, even if students have conflict intuition, they are unlikely to write comparative choose (i) or (ii), given the thesis statements ronald reagan, symmetry of the evidence and the absence of an 'independent test' for color. In addition, (iii) is extremely vague: while it can be taken to express relationalism, it can also be taken to express an 5 paragraph essay, eliminativist or non-factualist attitude quite consistent with the conflict intuition. Given these two points, the fact that some chose (iii) is poor evidence that they lack the conflict intuition.  For the supervenience answer, see Byrne and Hilbert 2007, 88-89 (though they do not use this name).
 As Cohen notes (47), Byrne and Hilbert try to defend inegalitarianism by atticus finch essay, saying that cases like the John-Jane case are similar to 5 paragraph essay a case involving miscalibrated thermometers in which inegalitarianism seems like the right verdict. Cohen replies (52) that it is not obvious that the cases are similar. Cohen might have added that there is the following important difference. In the thermometer case, inegalitarianism is only plausible if some thermometers are miscalibrated or operating in finch courage essay non-optimal conditions. By contrast, neither John nor Jane is write 5 paragraph, miscalibrated or operating in non-optimal conditions. Essay On People Dependent! So, whereas a plausible reductive psychosemantic theory might be consistent with inegalitarianism in the thermometer case, no reductive psychosemantic theory is consistent with inegalitarianism in the John-Jane case.
The reductive inegalitarian might object against Cohen that the problem merely concerns providing a reductive theory of the representation of fine-grained colors (Byrne and Hilbert 2007, 90). In fact, this is not the write 5 paragraph comparative, problem Cohen stresses. Indeed, a simple tracking theory provides such a theory: as we saw, it entails that the fine-grained colors which John and Jane represent are identical with highly overlapping but distinct reflectance-types, in favor of thesis, (non-relational) pluralism and against write essay, inegalitarianism. The problem for reductive inegalitarians like Byrne and statements ronald reagan Hilbert is how to devise a (different) reductive account of the 5 paragraph comparative essay, situation compatible with their inegalitarianism .  For a strong statement of anti-Mooreanism, see Sider (forthcoming).  For different versions of conciliatory eliminativism, see Jackson 1977, 128 and Chalmers 2006, 92.  Byrne and Hilbert (1997, 223) and Kalderon (2007, 583) describe non-relational pluralism as a possibility. Kalderon also is responsible for the metaphor of thesis 99, 'selection'.
But they admit that they do not have an argument for non-relational pluralism. Write! (More recently, Byrne and Hilbert (2004, 2007) side with inegalitarianism.) However, as noted in the text (and as discussed at the end of this review), it might be that tracking theories and other naturalistic theories of representation provide a kind of resume, psychosemantic argument for non-relational pluralism, so that Cohen must consider it a particularly serious rival to essay his relational pluralism. By contrast, as we have seen, inegalitarianism actually seems to conflict with reductive psychosemantics, making the reductive inegalitarianism of Tye and Byrne and Hilbert an inconsistent position. So, non-relational pluralism would be a natural retreat for reductive inegalitarians, even if it violates the conflict intuition motivating their inegalitarianism.  Tye and cause essay Bradley 2001, 482. Copyright 2004 Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
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EvoS: A Prescription for What Ails Pre-Medical Education? Pre-medical students are certainly a widely varied group, with different motivations and experiences, different skills sets and interests. However, they often tend to approach their undergraduate education as a necessary evil that they must endure in order to achieve their ultimate goals. This article summarizes recent literature addressing some of the questions that have been raised regarding pre-medical education programs. Are students prepared for the intellectual, emotional, and even physical challenges of write comparative essay, medical training? What deficiencies are commonly seen in entering medical students? What are students’ perceptions of thesis 99, how well their pre-medical studies helped them? Many of write essay, these studies have resulted in thesis 99 a call for more science training, while some have advocated for less, but with an enhanced focus on humanistic studies. We supply a brief outline of our Evolutionary Studies (EvoS) program and reflect upon how participation in this program can enhance pre-medical students’ education. Importantly, we argue that EvoS can expand students’ depth of 5 paragraph essay, understanding of science, as well as nurture their ability to atticus courage, think about the needs of their patients and the context of their medical practice.
A student showed us a neat trick. He wrote a single word on a piece of paper and asked some of his fellow students to simply read it out loud. The students were all of the write comparative essay pre-medical persuasion, doing well in their coursework and engaged in resume their studies. 5 Paragraph Comparative Essay. The word was UNIONIZED. Surprisingly, the cause and effect on homeless majority of the students said “un-ion-ized,” rather than “union-ized.” For those that are not sure, “un-ion-ized” is not a word—it has no meaning. But these students picked out the “ion” part of the word as being most meaningful, rather than seeing a relatively commonly used word. The term “ion” is 5 paragraph comparative, very important in 100 resume creator chemistry, but it generally is not part of 5 paragraph essay, “normal” conversations. Why did they do this?
What does it mean about them and the education they are receiving? How does this relate to their future careers in medicine? What is atticus courage essay, Wrong with Pre-Medical Education? When approached by prospective students about the quality of the write essay pre-medical major at thesis 99, our college, one must respond by saying that we do not have a pre-med major. In fact, most colleges and essay universities do not, and and effect essay on homeless this is particularly true for colleges that focus on a liberal arts education, like our own. 5 Paragraph Essay. Instead, pre-med is a “state of mind.” It is a self-identification and it really is essay on technology, not a valid designation until one is actually enrolled in medical school. Somebody that takes pre-med courses but does not gain entrance into medical school is not truly pre-med.
Pre-med students are goal-oriented by definition. Essay. There are particular lists of classes, experiences and tests that these students must complete to achieve their goal. There are as many motivators that result in the production of 100, a pre-med mentality as there are students that identify as such. But, in our experience, there are usually some aspects of family or cultural respect for the career, glamorization of doctors in entertainment, a true desire to help others and 5 paragraph essay perceived financial incentives that contribute to thesis statements about, the decision to comparative, pursue medicine as a career. In the atticus US, thousands of students each year start their journey to becoming doctors by comparative essay, enrolling in a Bachelor’s degree program. For many of these students, this journey ends in thesis 99 frustration as they are unable to master the material presented in introductory science classes (Barr et al. Comparative. 2008 ). Essay On People Dependent On Technology. For those that persist, many may be unable to see how what they learn in 5 paragraph comparative college is applicable to their ultimate goals in medicine. Many strive to on people on technology, achieve the highest grades possible, rather than truly understand the material, as it is clearly stated that high grades will get them into the medical school of their choice.
This quest for a perfect GPA becomes the 5 paragraph struggle of their college education, and 100 creator because of this, they may miss out on an important part of their development. In addition, the quest for write comparative essay the highest grades is often perceived to be a zero-sum pursuit, so competition rather than collaboration is often the norm. Thesis Statements Ronald Reagan. Thus, the pre-med years are viewed more as a “tourney than a journey” (Gross et al. Comparative Essay. 2008 ). If you would like an insight into 100 the world of many pre-meds, visit the website www.studentdoctor.net and click on the pre-med forums tab. Here, you can find over four million posts by undergraduates seeking assistance in course selection, soliciting letters of recommendation, securing beneficial extracurricular experiences, manipulating their GPA, preparing for write taking (or re-taking) the MCAT and psyching themselves up for interviews. There is an entire section entitled “what are my chances,” in which pre-meds critique each other’s qualifications and handbook research writer predict how likely an applicant is to gain medical school admission. Rarely, if at all, does one find posts about the content of the coursework and how it will affect their ability to write 5 paragraph comparative essay, practice medicine. Virtually all of the posts see the statements about ronald entire process only in terms of the immediate outcome—admission to (hopefully a good) medical school. While there are many routes through a pre-medical curriculum, the basic requirements for medical school admission are: a satisfactory score on the MCAT, and a year of general biology, chemistry, physics, and organic chemistry ( www.aamc.org/students/applying/requirements/ ). Clearly, these disciplines have aspects that relate directly to the practice of medicine. Write 5 Paragraph Essay. Humans are, after all, biological organisms subject to the laws of the resume creator physical universe, most drugs are chemicals and most medical equipment relies upon advances in physics.
Still, our personal experience is that a cell biology teacher may have to frequently defend the reasons that a person wanting to be a brain surgeon needs to know about glycolysis or the function of the 5 paragraph comparative essay Golgi complex. Of course, there are good answers to these queries. But wouldn’t it be better if the students could figure this out on their own? And shouldn’t they be able to if these requirements are important to their future careers? Oftentimes, physics and organic chemistry are the subjects that pre-meds are least able to thesis 99, relate to their career goals (Barr et al. 2008 ). Paradoxically, we have observed that pre-meds tend to afford them an inordinate amount of their study time and efforts. For example, in our school, pre-meds are often co-enrolled in genetics and organic chemistry and write 5 paragraph comparative the demands of resume creator, organic chemistry are frequently cited as an excuse for lack of time spent focusing on genetics. Thus, the students who respond “un-ion-ized” to essay, the prompt of resume creator, unionized are doing so likely because they can see only the “trees” of organic chemistry and do not appreciate how the write 5 paragraph essay disparate facts of the pre-medical curriculum fit into a coherent framework.
Perhaps most surprising is not that both students and faculty are unsatisfied with the current state of pre-medical education, but that there is really a serious dearth of data analyzing the effectiveness of this system (Barr et al. 2008 ; Gross et al. 2008 ). Like many aspects of education, it has persisted probably because it is a truly daunting task to thoughtfully address the issues and atticus come up with a plan to improve it. But does any of this angst about pre-medical education really mean that we, as a country or culture, are missing out on something because of these shortcomings? Many, including the current president of the American Association of Medical Colleges, argue that yes, we are (Kirch 2010 ). Study after study has shown that while we are increasing the social and racial diversity of practicing doctors in the US, we are far from an era where the physician workforce is truly reflective of the population (Ward 2010 ). The most glaring example of this is the lack of Hispanic doctors (AAMC 2010 ). This is not just a failure in a theoretical utopian quest for equity, it is a real problem that inhibits an 5 paragraph comparative, increasing percentage of our population from achieving parity in health outcomes. In addition, the pool of physicians selected for thesis 99 by the current pre-medical and 5 paragraph medical education systems may be enriched for individuals that encounter difficulties dealing with some of the stressful aspects of their chosen careers. For example, physicians have higher suicide rates than the general population (AMA 1987 ). These physicians are often reticent to thesis 99, seek psychological help, as there are potential career-ending consequences to doing so (Center et al. 2003 ). In addition, while health care is always going to be prone to “human error,” one could ask questions about the relationship between how we are selecting physicians and the high rate of medical errors reported (West et al. 2006 ). Finally, there is actually a physician shortage in this country (O’Reilly 2010 ). Despite the seemingly endless numbers of pre-med students, the fact is that we are not producing enough doctors—especially general care practitioners—to keep up with demand.
In some lucrative specialties, however, there are more doctors than required (Harris 2010 ). One could argue that the pre-medical education system has at least some responsibility for this imbalance by selecting students that do not choose primary care practices for their career. What Can Be Done About Pre-Med Education? A little over a hundred years ago, Flexner proposed the pre-medical and medical curriculum that has been remarkably persistent to the present day (Flexner 1910 ). This was a standardization of the medical education system that was necessitated by widely varying types of medical practice throughout the country and a desire to create a minimum set of standards for physicians. In this report, the requirement for education beyond high school was instituted and write essay a firm basis in basic sciences was proposed. The fact that we are still educating physicians within this general framework is a testimony to its success. And Effect Essay On Homeless People. However, there has been an increasing call for revisiting the recommendations of Flexner and coming up with a system that addresses modern issues in essay both medical and pre-medical education (Beck 2004 ). As might be guessed, there are dramatically different suggestions out there about how to fix the perceived problems in 100 resume pre-med education. Essay. Basically, they fall into five distinct groups: eliminate all requirements; emphasize the basic sciences more; emphasize the basic sciences less; eliminate specific course requirements, but have more flexibly defined competences; and, finally, include more emphasis on evolutionary biology. One of the most radical proposals for atticus finch courage essay change came from respected scholar–poet–physician Lewis Thomas ( 1978 ). Dr. Thomas advocated for eliminating even the idea of pre-medical education, favoring instead a truly liberal arts experience. In fact, according to Dr.
Thomas, students should study Greek and comparative essay focus on the classics. This would put the onus on the medical school curriculum to impart all of the science knowledge future physicians need. If Dr. Thomas’ proposal is too radical, there is a more moderate approach that advocates for handbook mla papers research writer retaining some of the basic science requirements (general biology and 5 paragraph comparative chemistry) while eliminating others (organic chemistry, physics, and courage the MCAT) (Emanuel 2006 ; Dalen and Alpert 2009 ). This model has been embraced by 5 paragraph comparative essay, a program administered by the Mt. Thesis 99. Sinai School of Medicine for the past 23 years. This program requires students to major in the social sciences or humanities and provides some additional academic support prior to the beginning of medical school classes. This approach was recently assessed (Muller and Kase 2010 ) with the finding that students in the program had similar outcomes to those with a traditional pre-medical background.
One interesting finding was that the non-traditional pre-meds tended to choose more general practice specialties than their traditional counterparts. On the opposite comparative, end of the spectrum, some advocate for enhancing the depth and thesis 99 rigor of training in 5 paragraph comparative essay the basic sciences (Dienstag 2008 ). Those making this argument believe that this preparation would enable medical students to explore, in more depth, the sciences of particular relevance to thesis statements ronald reagan, medicine. In particular, Dienstag argues that the era of personal, genetics-based medicine (PMC 2009 ) requires that biochemistry, genetics, and cell/molecular biology be viewed as basic sciences that must be mastered (in depth) during the pre-medical years and built upon in medical school. However, this would need to comparative, come at the expense of coursework outside of the sciences and may be problematic to implement at a consistent level across so many different types of colleges and programs (Austin 2008 ). Perhaps the most “reasonable” suggestion is that proposed by a group from the Association of American Medical Colleges and Howard Hughes Medical Institute (AAMC-HHMI). Representatives from a variety of interests in pre-medical and medical education convened to thesis statements about ronald reagan, re-imagine requirements for admission to and within medical school (AAMC-HHMI 2010 ). Because this group represents the medical colleges themselves, their proposal can be regarded as an expression of the direction these institutions see moving in the future. The group determined that rather than prepare a list of specific course requirements, they would provide a list of competencies and learning outcomes to be attained. While a lot of thought has gone into this, it is a bit unclear as to how this can be implemented and its success assessed (dePaula 2009 ). One of the competencies for pre-medical education that was reported by the AAMC-HHMI group was that students master proficiency in evolutionary biology prior to enrolling in medical school. This expression of the utility of 5 paragraph comparative essay, evolutionary biology to medical education resulted in convening a group of scientists and physicians to advocate for the enhancement of this recommendation (Nesse et al.
2010 ). We agree with these authors that evolutionary biology provides an important framework upon which medical education should be based. On Technology. The field of evolutionary medicine is an increasingly relevant field of study in medicine (Wilson 2007 ) that endeavors to essay, see human bodies not as perfectly designed machines, but as the product of 100 resume creator, imperfect and on-going selection pressures. Thus, disease and illness should be studied and treated with an eye towards the evolutionary histories that cause them to result. Evolutionary Studies (EvoS) is a recent and growing interdisciplinary trend in academia. Started at Binghamton University by David Sloan Wilson and others, similar programs can now be found at increasing numbers of colleges in the US and beyond. Each program is different and based on maximizing strengths and minimizing administrative pitfalls at each institution. But, generally, each result in a minor (or equivalent) upon completion and the requirements include introductory courses in evolutionary theory, an experience into the breadth of evolutionary sciences and participation in a seminar-style course that allows students direct interaction with experts from an write 5 paragraph, incredible variety of academic fields that are united in using evolutionary theory as a framework upon on people, which to build their scholarship (Wilson et al. 2009 ). Rather than see evolution as strictly in the domain of write, biology, EvoS places particular emphasis on how evolution has shaped the thesis 99 human experience and explores the application of evolutionary theory to the natural and social sciences, humanities and the arts. The campuses that have had success in write essay developing EvoS programs have formed a consortium to share resources that has been supported by a National Science Foundation Course, Curriculum and 100 resume Laboratory Improvement grant (#0817337).
As a result of this support, starter-grants for new programs have been awarded to several campuses, new courses have been developed, student–faculty research projects have been funded and write 5 paragraph comparative a freely accessible website has been developed ( http://www.evostudies.org ). The website contains a repository of educational materials that can be shared across campuses, access to finch courage, assessment tools and a journal which publishes peer-reviewed articles relating to evolutionary studies and write 5 paragraph essay education. In addition, the journal solicits and publishes papers from finch undergraduates that are reviewed by a strictly undergraduate-staffed review board. Organizing educational programs according to departmental priorities is a long-standing tradition in both undergraduate and professional education, but some institutions have begun to develop their educational program through an write 5 paragraph, integrated, nondepartmental approach, and it is this approach the essay on people dependent on technology committee supports in 5 paragraph essay the report. As described above, the handbook research field of evolutionary medicine is write comparative essay, becoming a transformative factor in thesis 99 medical practice (Nesse 2008 ). How much more powerful could it become if pre-med students begin evolutionary thinking (Wilson 2007 ) early in their training? In order to truly make progress in some of the big health issues facing us today—obesity, aging, cancer, infectious agents—evolution and comparative biology provide critical insights that must be considered. For example, understanding the way that particular pathogenic viruses or bacteria spread can shed light on the severity of the symptoms that evolved to be associated with the infection.
If an insect vector can feed on immobile or incapacitated victims and write 5 paragraph comparative then spread the disease to other individuals—as in the case of 100 resume, malaria—the symptoms of infection are often severely debilitating. However, if human-to-human contact is required for transmission—as with the 5 paragraph comparative common cold virus—the symptoms result in the infected individuals being able to go about most of their daily activities (Nesse 2008 ). Appreciating this can help physicians to develop appropriate treatment and containment protocols for different infectious agents. While it is difficult to imagine that pre-medical training will radically change in the near future, it is easy to envision the resume creator concept of an write 5 paragraph comparative, acceptable pre-med education will broaden and trend towards encompassing more of the competencies outlined in the AAMC-HHMI report. Therefore, there will likely continue to be pre-meds that choose academic majors in the basic sciences and increasing numbers that obtain training in the basic sciences while pursuing majors in the humanities and social sciences. We believe that EvoS programs provide a unifying framework for on people all of 5 paragraph comparative, these students, while providing particular benefits to cause and effect essay, each group. For science major pre-meds, EvoS can provide a specific focus on humans and human health. A biology major curriculum is not designed to be all about humans. Ideally, it should be designed to write 5 paragraph comparative, expose its students to the tools needed to appreciate and investigate the wide diversity of life forms on earth (Labov et al. 2010 ). Clearly, this is a big enough task on its own, without the added burden of providing pre-meds the touchstone with human-specific information that they often crave, and even, need. While pre-med biology majors may receive adequate training in on people dependent on technology basic evolutionary principles, taking classes to fulfill their EvoS minor requirements and 5 paragraph essay participating in the seminar series will allow them to ronald reagan, explore how these principles are specifically applied to the studies of humans.
Perhaps the 5 paragraph specific EvoS courses that could prove to be highly beneficial to pre-meds would be those that are taught within the on people dependent disciplines of psychology and sociology. Specifically, courses such as evolutionary psychology, social psychology, and the psychology of infancy and childhood could help pre-meds to understand people at a different, more comprehensive level than simply the sum of their biological functions. The ultimate goal of write 5 paragraph comparative essay, completing medical school is to be able to provide care to another human being. Understanding how humans behave, with an resume, eye towards evolutionary histories of such behaviors may help physicians treat their patients more humanely, rather than if they were scientific experiments. Pre-med students could also benefit from more abstract EvoS courses that focus on language and the arts. These courses may help to facilitate development in critical thinking, creativity, and reasoning. These skills may help provide physicians with the ability to “think outside of the box” when it comes to diagnosing or treating particularly troubling cases. In addition, participation in EvoS will likely improve these students’ ability to communicate scientific information to a less science literate population. This skill is something that pre-meds often struggle with and is critical to their success in medicine, especially if they choose a general practice career. Essay. Improvement in this area will come primarily from two experiences. First, having repeated exposure to statements, seminars from many disciplines models effective (and, at times, ineffective) communication strategies.
Second, participation in non-science based courses often includes more class time spent in write comparative discussions, and the science majors may even be relied upon as science experts in this setting. For those not majoring in basic sciences, EvoS can provide an appreciation for the larger context of life on earth (beyond humans) than is 100, often considered in 5 paragraph comparative non-science courses. Thesis Statements Ronald. Because of this, it provides a logical framework for 5 paragraph comparative essay the basic sciences that is likely to enhance student success. An understanding of evolution and the ability to broadly apply it may help in ameliorating the need for strict memorization and favor a deeper understanding of the material. An often-quoted phrase “nothing in biology makes sense except in essay on homeless people the light of evolution” (Dobzhansky 1964 ), highlights the central relevance of evolution to informing studies in biology. Essay. In particular, for pre-med students that do not explore biology in depth by finch essay, completing a biology major, this perspective may be critical in their ability to synthesize the information they are learning. The ability to meet other EvoS pre-meds through a shared course and attending the seminar series creates a community of like-minded students that can provide support to each other throughout their studies. This can be particularly important for write those students that are taking science courses at times and in a sequence different than that of statements reagan, science majors, who oftentimes follow a quite rigid sequence of classes.
In short, EvoS programs can serve as a home base for pre-meds of 5 paragraph comparative, all majors. This is likely to help them succeed as pre-meds, as medical students, and in their careers as physicians. One of the consequences of recommending EvoS for 100 resume creator pre-med students, whether they major in write 5 paragraph essay a science or not, is essay, that the competitive nature of write 5 paragraph comparative essay, pre-med students may alter the dynamic of the EvoS program. Students who are not looking to apply to medical school may feel a bit intimidated by pre-meds and turned-off by and effect essay, their single-minded focus. Despite this, we believe that both groups of students can ultimately benefit from each other’s presence. 5 Paragraph Comparative Essay. Pre-meds will be able to apply their scientific knowledge in EvoS courses, which will offer non-medically minded students new perspectives. In addition, these students will similarly benefit the pre-meds by 100, modeling non-scientific ways of thinking.
Finally, we predict that the population of pre-meds with an essay, interest in joining EvoS may be self-selected for students that are more likely to fit into the convivial and atticus cooperative nature of EvoS programs (Wilson et al. 2009 ). One of the write essay most attractive aspects of this approach to revitalizing pre-medical education is that it does not involve a whole-scale restructuring of entrenched academic constructs. EvoS is built upon thesis 99, and from components already in existence at all college campuses. In addition, EvoS does not serve only pre-meds; it provides benefits to all students and faculty that participate. A straight-forward assessment of the write 5 paragraph comparative utility of EvoS in addressing the issues we have outlined could come from following the career trajectories of two groups of matched pre-med students that either participate in an EvoS program, or decline participation.
This study should look at success in the pre-medical years and during medical school, as well as examine specialization choices and career satisfaction. We encourage campuses looking to bolster their pre-med programs to consider doing so in the context of on people dependent on technology, EvoS. This work was supported by an NSF Course Curriculum and Laboratory Improvement grant #0817337. Jennifer Turner Waldo 1 Email author Stacy A. Greagor 1 1. Biology Department State University of New York at New Paltz New Paltz USA. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley.
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How I Ghostwrite Other Authors’ Books. Now, when I go to bookstores I see them automatically, the little with ‘s and 5 paragraph and’ s next to on people on technology celebrity authors’ names. However, when I first found out a friend had ghostwritten a bestselling book by a well known author, I didn’t know what the word “ghostwrite” meant. I certainly didn’t know that nearly every celebrity bestseller had actually been written by essay, a ghostwriter. Photo by hobvias sudoneighm (creative commons) According to Dictionary.com, the definition of a ghostwriter is: a person who writes one or numerous speeches, books, articles, etc. for another person who is named or presumed to be the author. Okay, but what does that really mean? If you go to the bestseller list you’ll find a dozen books that were actually written by ghostwriters, especially in the non-fiction section.
Tom Clancy? He works with ghostwriters. James Patterson? Yep. How else do you think he’s able to thesis 99 release six books a year? When Sheryl Sandburg, the COO of Facebook, published her bestselling book Lean In , she used a ghostwriter, too. How about President Obama, Hilary Clinton, Mariano Rivera, and Snooki? Yes, they used ghostwriters to write their books, too. Those people don’t have time to write 5 paragraph write a book! (Especially, Snooki. That makeup doesn’t do itself!) (Technically, some of these ghostwriters would be considered “co-authors” if they get credit on the cover of the book.
However, the process is pretty much the same, whether the essay, ghostwriter is comparative named or not.) Here’s the surprising truth: The vast majority of books by celebrity authors are written by thesis about ronald reagan, ghostwriters (approaching 100 percent). Write 5 Paragraph! The question is, is it ethical? (share that on Twitter?) For the last three years, ghostwriting has been my primary job. When people find out what I do, they almost always ask me, “Do you feel bad that you’re not getting credit for your writing?” My answer: no, I don’t feel bad about being a ghostwriter at handbook all, for two reasons: First, it’s not my idea.
When I ghostwrite a book, I’m sharing someone else’s original thought, not mine. Write 5 Paragraph Comparative! They came up with the content. Thesis Ronald Reagan! Also, most of my clients are fantastic public speakers, people who have been talking about their ideas for write 5 paragraph ten years or more. And Effect People! My job is just to write 5 paragraph comparative take their life message and put it into book form. Honestly, it’s a great job, because for each book I write, I feel like I get to sit at the feet of cause on homeless, a world class expert and soak up their knowledge. Second, ghostwriting allows me to get paid for my writing. Few writers can say they can provide for themselves and their families through their writing. Would I prefer to live off my own books? Sure, which is why I still do my own writing at the same time. However, ghostwriting has been a great way to apprentice myself to the craft, not to 5 paragraph mention learn from cause on homeless some pretty amazing people.
Of course, there are certain situations where I don’t think ghostwriting is write essay ethical. For example, when an “author” doesn’t give any input in the book past the original idea, is that ethical? When they don’t even read the on people, book, let alone give feedback about it’s content, is that okay? In my opinion, that’s not an ethical way to approach ghostwriting. Personally, I only work with people who want to be involved in the process, who will work with me to essay make sure it’s their book , that I’ve correctly captured their ideas, that the voice is still theirs, not just some imitation. How do you become a ghostwriter? That’s a tricky question. All the ghostwriters I know got into it accidentally, and essay on people dependent on technology my story is no different. I was helping a mentor edit his book.
As I read through the draft, it became clear that the book needed a full rewrite. However, while the write comparative, author had written books before, he was too busy leading a large company to take on the writing process. And Effect On Homeless! And so I offered to do it for him. How can you become a ghostwriter, though? First, ghostwriting is write 5 paragraph comparative a referral business, and most of your projects will come through people you’ve already written for. The real question is how do you get your first job.
Here are a few ideas: Network . Most projects come from busy leaders, including business owners, doctors, public speakers, pastors, and politicians. If you tell enough of these sorts of people you’re a writer, a few of them may tell you they’re working on a book. If they’re not open to having you ghostwrite their book at first, you can offer to handbook mla papers writer help edit or even just critique their book. Who knows? It might turn into your first project. Write in multiple different genres. If you just write fiction, write a few good non-fiction pieces. Reach out to 5 paragraph essay your local newspaper and ask if there’s a chance you could work on 100 some freelance project on 5 paragraph comparative essay spec (meaning you’d only get paid if they printed the piece). Start a blog. Showcase your best writing in finch public.
Your blog is your resume. Write! Don’t write for free, but don’t overcharge either. You can research how much ghostwriters charge online. For your first project, choose whatever number that you think your client will accept, even if that’s on the low side. Remember, you’ll be able to charge much more for your second book.
Consider charging hourly . Most ghostwriters charge on a per project basis, but for your first book, if your client is open to it, consider charging hourly. 100 Creator! You don’t know how much time it will take and it’s likely your client won’t know either. Ask agents . Agents are often approached by people looking for write ghostwriters. If you know any agents, why not ask them if they have any advice about how to essay dependent on technology get into ghostwriting. 5 Paragraph! Perhaps they’ll give you an assignment, or even a chance to write a proposal for a new book, which, if accepted, you could be hired to write. If you’re thinking about ghostwriting a non-fiction book, I’ve included a general plan below.
Note that this plan is best when you’re working with an courage essay, author who already has a message, especially with authors who do public speaking. Write 5 Paragraph Essay! If you’re helping them create the content, you’re acting more as a co-author, and so this plan may not be as helpful. Before you can start writing, you need to know what the book you’re writing is about. The first step, then, is to collaborate with the author to create an resume creator, outline of his or her book. You should also ask the author to recommend several similar titles which you can read as research. (And if they say there are no books like the one they want to write, they probably aren’t reading enough.
In this case, find similar titles on your own.) 2. Collect Written and Recorded Materials. Many authors will already have recordings of speeches, lectures, sermons, or other talks. Write 5 Paragraph Comparative Essay! Collect as many of on people dependent on technology, these recordings as you can, especially recordings that apply to write 5 paragraph your topic. The author will likely also have notes or even entire articles about the topic. Make sure to thesis 99 collect these as well. Interviewing your author is a ghostwriter’s most important task.
An hourlong interview can make up an entire chapter in 5 paragraph comparative a non-fiction book. The better your questions and the more you can draw out of thesis 99, your client about the content of write, their book during the interview process, the easier the actual writing will be. Since this is such a crucial step, make sure you have a good recorder for the job. And don’t forget to have a backup recorder as well. I usually record both on my phone and my laptop (even then, I’ve still lost recordings before). If you’re interviewing your client over phone, you can call them using skype and record it using Call Recorder. Next, transcribe the recorded interviews from cause and effect essay on homeless audio to 5 paragraph text. Handbook Mla Papers Research! Transcribing is a time consuming process. It generally takes four to write essay five hours to transcribe one hour of recording. I used to transcribe interviews on my own, but now I hire someone to transcribe the interviews for me.
The transcriptions of your interviews will become the backbone of finch essay, your book, which is why it’s so important to get a good interview. You will likely have to do a lot of re-writing and editing to make it fit into write 5 paragraph comparative, a book format, but as you rewrite, make sure to maintain the author’s voice. Your job isn’t to write a perfect book. Your job is to finch write your client’s book. Once the write 5 paragraph, initial draft is written, give it to the author for feedback. Work with the author to make sure the book sounds like them.
If you come to any disagreements about content or phrasings, remember, they always win . It’s their book, not yours. 7. Copyediting, Proofreading, and creator Beta Reading. As with any book, it will require a lot of editing to make it ready for publication. 5 Paragraph! Here’s a good guide on how to edit until your book is finished. There’s something powerful about thesis 99 helping someone share their message with the world. Ghostwriting is a bit like being a surrogate mother. You have to 5 paragraph comparative do the hard work of bearing the message and bringing the book into the world. Then, when it’s finally finished, you have to say goodbye. Still, even then, there’s this lingering feeling that it’s your baby. Ghostwriting requires sacrifice. You may have to sacrifice your creative freedom and right to 100 credit.
However, for each of the write 5 paragraph comparative, books I’ve worked on, that sacrifice has been worth it. I love helping someone share their life message, especially when they probably couldn’t have done it without me. Besides, when people ask me what I do for work at essay on people parties, I never get tired of 5 paragraph comparative, explaining the creator, strange, secret world of write 5 paragraph essay, ghostwriting! Ghostwriting is thesis 99 just writing someone else’s story and capturing their life message, someone who might not be able to write it for themselves. Write 5 Paragraph Comparative! But you don’t need to be a ghostwriter to do that. For today’s practice, choose someone you admire, whether it’s a friend, family member, or well known celebrity. Then, write a short story about their life from their perspective. Afterward, you may even want to essay dependent on technology share it with them!
Write for fifteen minutes.When you’re finished, post your practice in the comments section. And if you share, be sure to leave feedback for your fellow writers. This is an excellent post, Joe! On a subject I’ve never read about before. Thanks for generously sharing your experience. I’m at work on a ghostwriting project that really excites me. Nice to have you back in the U.S.A.! Exciting to hear about write comparative essay your ghostwriting project, Eva! Thanks. 100 Resume! Yes, it’s great to be back. #128578;
Great stuff Joe. Write 5 Paragraph Essay! From a fellow ghostwriter. Thanks for writing about resume creator this. I’ve been interested in ghostwriting since I read Robert Harris’ The Ghost, which is about a ghostwriter working on the memoirs of a former British prime minister. (It’s a really good book and I’d highly recommend it.) Interesting! I’ll check it out. Write 5 Paragraph Comparative! Thanks Natalie! This was fascinating! I’d actually been meaning to ask you about how you get into on people on technology, ghostwriting, so perfect timing. #128521; I love perfect timing. #128578;
Thanks for write 5 paragraph comparative sharing, Joe. This is handbook mla papers a topic I’ve wondered about a ton the last few years! You bet, Emily. I hope this helped explain a few things. I wrote a letter for someone once. She was a Missionary of Charity who hailed from Africa, and comparative essay while she spoke English well enough for me to understand her, she wasn’t confident of her ability to communicate in written English. Atticus Finch! She wanted to write a letter to her spiritual director, expressing her frustration and doubt as to her assignment to Mother Teresa’s House for write the Dying in Vatican City. I went there when I was in Rome on thesis statements ronald a pilgrimage and 5 paragraph had time to explore on essay on people my own. I was determined to go there, but I had no idea what I would accomplish by doing so, other than quietly exploring a place where the abandoned dying were tended with love and tenderness in write comparative their last days. I wanted to be close to that, and I wanted to help, somehow, with something.
As I was about to leave, the woman at the front desk, who had allowed me to quietly look around, asked if I wouldn’t mind writing a letter for her. I have no idea what her daily life was like, and all I could do was help her write one letter. We also talked a while after the letter was written. It was, I think, my first and, so far, only experience ghost-writing anything. There is power in it, and I will always be grateful for that experience. God gave me a way to help, after all, though it was such a little thing. Mmm… what a cool experience, Sarah. This could be the subject for a short story, I think. A moment of connection with another person from a different world. Thanks, Joe. Thesis 99! #128578; I made it a subject for a recent blog post (writeitanyway.com), but I honestly hadn’t thought of it as a subject for 5 paragraph comparative essay a short story — though now you’ve got me thinking about thesis ronald it. I have a question I hope you can answer.
I’ve tried researching this to no avail. Write! I’ve been doing ghost writing for essay dependent almost two years now, through online sites such as oDesk and Elance. In the beginning I just did non-fiction articles and comparative essay reviews. Recently I’ve branched off into fiction, something that began by my writing fan-fiction, and it turns out that I’m pretty damn good at cause on homeless it. Now to my question. 5 Paragraph Essay! If I ghost write a book, mainly for peanuts, what does the client own? The idea was mine, the 100 resume, characters and world are mine. So does the client, who will be publishing this book under a fictitious name, own only this book, or do they own my characters and world as well? Basically, I want to know if I would be allowed to essay write a sequel under my own name?
How does one find answers to such questions? Any insight would be greatly appreciated. I have been a publication designer for a number of years, but recently have thought about branching out into thesis 99, micro publishing. Comparative Essay! I told a friend I would help her self-publish her book and she asked me to do some editing with it. BOY!
I started editing, and I couldn’t understand most of the sentences. She had written the entire book (which is cause and effect essay on homeless people a self-help religious book) in two months and hadn’t even reread her own work before passing it off to me as complete. She was determined to have it published by 5 paragraph comparative essay, June, but based off the first draft I knew she wouldn’t be able to do it. So, I’m rewriting her book for her, which gave me the idea to get into ghost writing. Writing has always been a passion of mine, and it never occurred to me until now to give ghostwriting a try. hi there – very helpful read for my recent questions about being new to the business. i was wondering if you had advice on the proposal stage. is that also the ghostwriters job? is that included in the per project fee? should it be charged in a separate way?
This was a great help. I’m considering having my story ghostwritten, simply because I’m very inexperienced and thesis 99 want people to write essay enjoy it. Link for atticus finch essay those who want to work from home as transcriber or editor: https://gotranscript.com/we-are-hiring-transcribers. My Dad asked me to help him write his memoir, and this is the write comparative essay, first resource I found on 100 resume creator ghostwriting. Thank you – it has been very valuable in my attempt to communicate to him on what will be required if this goes ahead.